Dönme

or Dönmeh

Jewish-Islamic sect founded in Salonika (now Thessaloniki, Greece) in the late 17th century.

Its members were followers of Shabbetai Tzevi, whom they believed to be the messiah. Arrested by Ottoman authorities in 1666, he chose conversion to Islam over death, as did his followers, who believed that his conversion was a step in the fulfillment of messianic prophecy. While accepting Islam, they secretly practiced various Jewish rites, preserved some knowledge of Hebrew, and refused to intermarry with Muslims. The community moved to Turkey in the early 20th century and gradually was assimilated, resisting Jewish attempts to return them to Judaism.

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▪ Jewish sect
also spelled  Dönmeh 

      (Turkish: “Convert”), Jewish (Jew) sect founded in Salonika (now Thessaloníki, Greece) in the late 17th century, after the conversion to Islām of Shabbetai Tzevi, whom the sectarians believed to be the Messiah. The Dönme, who numbered about 15,000 in the late 20th century, are found primarily in Istanbul, Edirne, and İzmir, Turkey.

      Shabbetai Tzevi had proclaimed himself the Messiah in 1648 and quickly gained financial support and a considerable following among Jews throughout the Holy Land, Europe, and North Africa. Early in 1666 he was arrested by Ottoman Turks and, faced with the choice of conversion or death, accepted Islām by the end of the year. The Dönme believed that the conversion of Shabbetai Tzevi was a step in the fulfillment of the messianic prophecy. They therefore also converted to Islām but secretly practiced various Judaic rites. Although they remained apart from the larger Jewish community, they preserved some knowledge of Hebrew, kept secret Hebrew names, forbade intermarriage with the Muslim population, and conducted their marriage and funeral rites in secret. As the Dönme remained secretive and lived in separate quarters, they were not generally noticed by the Muslims. Internally they split into a number of subsects, reflecting social distinctions and disputes over the successors to Shabbetai.

      At the turn of the 20th century, the Dönme, well represented in the professional classes, took active part in the Young Turk movement and the revolution of 1908. After the Greco-Turkish War of 1921–22, the central Dönme community of Thessaloníki was moved to Istanbul, and a gradual process of assimilation set in. Contact with Jews was lost, and the Dönme themselves resisted Jewish attempts to return them to Judaism.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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