Donation of Pippin
(754) Promise made by the Frankish king Pippin III to win for Pope Stephen II Byzantine imperial lands in Italy conquered by the Lombards.The Donation was made in the context of the papal struggle with the Lombards, the collapse of Byzantine support for the papacy, and Pippin's elevation to the royal throne with papal support. In 756 it was written in a document that became the basis of papal rule over central Italy, which lasted until the 19th century. Pippin won territory from the Lombard king in two military campaigns (754, 756) and gave it to the papacy. The Donation was later confirmed and enlarged by Charlemagne (774).
* * *▪ Italian historytraditional name of the oral or written promise made by the Carolingian (Carolingian dynasty) king Pippin III to Pope Stephen II (Stephen II (or III)) (or III) granting the pope rights over large territories in central Italy. The Donation was an important step in the development of the Papal States and helped to solidify the alliance between the papacy and the Frankish monarchy.The Donation of Pippin came into being as part of the restructuring of political alliances on the Italian peninsula in the mid-8th century. The papacy, still nominally subject to the Byzantine emperor in Constantinople, was plagued by encroachments on its territories from the Lombards (Lombard), especially under their militaristic king Aistulf. For protection, Stephen could no longer depend on the emperor, who had lost control of the imperial capital of Ravenna when Aistulf seized it. Stephen, therefore, turned his attention northward to the new king of the Franks, Pippin, who had deposed the last Merovingian (Merovingian dynasty) king in 750 after gaining approval from Stephen's predecessor, Zacharias (Zacharias, Saint) (741–752). In January 754 Pippin welcomed Stephen to the Carolingian royal palace at Ponthion, and the pope remained in the Frankish kingdom throughout the winter.Stephen's visit to Pippin bore important fruit for both pope and king. In a meeting in April at Quierzy, Pippin promised to restore papal lands taken by Aistulf in central Italy. Much of what Pippin granted to the pope had been imperial territory, to which the king had no legal claim. Papal accounts of the promise maintain that Pippin granted the pope the exarchate, including Ravenna, and the Roman duchy. The promise made at Quierzy was long identified as the Donation, though there is no surviving record of it. In any event, Stephen and Pippin forged an alliance in 754 that was strengthened when Stephen crowned and anointed Pippin and his sons Charlemagne and Carloman.What may be better identified as the official Donation of Pippin is the so-called Confession of St. Peter, which was compiled following Pippin's second invasion of Italy to assist the pope. Aistulf's continued aggression required the Frankish king to use force to protect Stephen and papal territory. In 755 and 756 Pippin entered Italy to stop the Lombard king, and in 756 he defeated Aistulf and imposed a peace on him. At Pippin's direction, the keys to a number of cities and territories in central Italy that had submitted to papal authority were collected. The keys and a list of the cities involved, the Confession of St. Peter, were placed on the altar of Old St. Peter's Basilica (Old Saint Peter's Basilica) in Rome in 756.The Donation of Pippin was confirmed by Pippin's successors, Charlemagne and Louis the Pious (Louis I), in 778 and 817 respectively. It was later offered as proof of the authenticity of the Donation of Constantine, whereby the Roman emperor supposedly granted Pope Sylvester I (Sylvester I, Saint) spiritual and temporal primacy in the Western Empire.
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Donation of Pippin — Traditional name of the oral or written promise made by the Carolingian king Pippin the Short to Pope Stephen II (r. 752 757). The Donation of Pippin was an important step in the establishment of the papal states and in the solidification of… … Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe
Donation of Constantine — One of the most important and well known forgeries of the early Middles Ages, this document presented itself as issued by the fourth century emperor Constantine, conferring great power on the pope. The date of composition and the purpose of… … Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe
Pippin III — , Called Pippin the Short (d. 768) Mayor of the palace and founder of the Carolingian royal dynasty, Pippin laid the foundation for much of Carolingian royal policy and success. Although often overshadowed by his more illustrious son,… … Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe
Pippin III — or Pepin or Pippin the Short born с 714 died Sept. 24, 768, Saint Denix, Neustria King of the Franks (751–768), the first king of the Carolingian dynasty and the father of Charlemagne. A son of Charles Martel, he became mayor of Neustria,… … Universalium
pippin — /pip in/, n. 1. any of numerous roundish or oblate varieties of apple. 2. Bot. a seed. [1250 1300; ME pipin, var. of pepin < OF] * * * (as used in expressions) Donation of Pippin Pippin III Pippin the Short Pippin Horace * * * ▪ king of Italy… … Universalium
Donation of Constantine — • By this name is understood, since the end of the Middle Ages, a forged document of Emperor Constantine the Great, by which large privileges and rich possessions were conferred on the pope and the Roman Church Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight … Catholic encyclopedia
Donation of Constantine — Document concerning the supposed grant by the emperor Constantine I (the Great) to Pope Sylvester I (314–335) and later popes of temporal power over Rome and the Western Empire. The gift was said to have been motivated by Constantine s gratitude… … Universalium
Donation of Constantine — A document apparently forged by the papacy (q.v.) in the eighth century to bolster its claims of political and ecclesiastical supremacy. It states that after Constantine I (q.v.) was baptized by Pope (q.v.) Silvester I (314 335), Constantine… … Historical dictionary of Byzantium
Aistulf — (d. 756) Penultimate Lombard king (r. 749 756), and one of the most ruthless and bloodthirsty to wear the iron crown of the Lombard monarchy. Like all the Lombard kings, Aistulf sought to extend his authority over the important central Italian … Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe
Chronology of the Late Antique and Early Medieval World — ♣ 305 With the retirement of the emperors Diocletian and Maximian, the Roman Empire falls again into civil war, which leads to the eventual triumph of Constantine the Great. ♣ 313 The emperors Constantine and Licinius issue the Edict of Milan,… … Encyclopedia of Barbarian Europe