Deák, Ferenc

born Oct. 17, 1803, Söjtör, Hung., Austrian Empire
died Jan. 28/29, 1876, Budapest

Hungarian politician.

He entered the Hungarian Diet in 1833, becoming a leader of the reform movement for the political emancipation of Hungary. Appointed minister of justice in 1848, he was the principal author of the reforming "April laws." In the 1860s he put forth Hungary's conditions for reconciliation with Austria in terms that led to the Compromise of 1867, establishing the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary, and he helped to complete the legislation deriving from the Compromise.

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▪ Hungarian statesman
byname  The Sage Of The Country,  Hungarian  A Haza Bölcse 
born Oct. 17, 1803, Söjtör, Hung., Austrian Empire [now in Hungary]
died Jan. 28/29, 1876, Budapest
 Hungarian statesman whose negotiations led to the establishment of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary in 1867.

      Deák was the son of a wealthy Hungarian landowner. After graduating in law, he entered the administrative service of his county of Zala, which in 1833 sent him to represent it in the Hungarian Diet, in place of his brother, who had resigned his mandate. At that Diet and those of 1839 and 1841, Deák made his mark as a leader of the growing reform movement for the political emancipation and internal regeneration of Hungary. Reelected in 1843, he declined his mandate in protest against the scandalous manner in which the election had been conducted, but by this time his unimpeachable integrity, unvarying good sense, and encyclopaedic knowledge of the law had made him the most generally respected figure in his camp. It was he who, in 1847, drafted for the “national opposition” its program of reform for the Diet of 1847. Ill health prevented him from seeking election to that body, but when, in March 1848, the crown sanctioned the establishment of an independent Hungarian ministry, the new minister president, Count Lajos Batthyány (Batthyány, Lajos, Count), insisted on his taking the portfolio of justice.

      As minister of justice, Deák was mainly responsible for the drafting of the reforming “April Laws” sanctioned by the monarch on April 11, 1848. During the next months, he took part in most of the negotiations between the Hungarian government and its opponents. He ceased to be minister when Batthyány resigned on September 28, and he refused reappointment, but in January 1849 he was a member of another mission that sought to intervene with Alfred, Fürst zu Windischgrätz, commander of the Austrian armies that had occupied Buda. Prevented from rejoining the Diet, he retired to his family estates, where he lived quietly for some years, unmolested by the Austrian authorities, who had decided that his activities had not been treasonable, but refusing all invitations to collaborate with a regime that he condemned as illegal. In 1854 he sold his estates—donating the bulk of the proceeds to his sister—and moved to Pest, taking up quarters in the Hotel Angol Királyné, which remained his home until his last illness.

      In Pest, Deák became the oracle of all those who sought a practical and honourable way out of Hungary's political impasse. Because Deák adamantly refused to recognize any regime that did not grant the legal validity of the April Laws, a Diet convoked in 1861 was dissolved and absolutist monarchy reimposed. As his international difficulties gradually convinced Emperor Francis Joseph of the need for reconciliation with Hungary, Deák, in both private conversations and public utterances, notably his famous “Easter Article” of April 16, 1865, put forward Hungary's conditions in terms that presently led to the Compromise ( Ausgleich) of 1867, by which the dual monarchy was established.

      Deák was beyond question the originator of the Compromise. The machinery that it embodied was not all of his devising, but it was his faith that a constitutionally satisfied Hungary and a strong monarchy could and must coexist that made the agreement possible; nor could agreement have been reached without his sagacity, resolution, and integrity and the faith that these qualities inspired in both camps.

      His adherents during the negotiations had styled themselves the “Deák Party.” He helped to complete the legislation deriving from the Compromise and defended it in Parliament when necessary. His health began to fail; his last public speech was made in November 1873.

      The Compromise was the crowning achievement of Deák's life work, but there was hardly a field of public life in which he did not exercise his influence, and always on the side of humanity, reasoned reform, and good sense. He was a foremost fighter for the reform of the conditions of the Hungarian peasantry, setting the example on his own estates.

Carlile Aylmer Macartney Ed.

Additional Reading
Bela K. Kiraly, Ferenc Deák (1975), makes use of newly disclosed documents to trace his career.

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Universalium. 2010.

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