Cyril of Alexandria, Saint
born с 375died June 27, 444; Western feast day June 27; Eastern feast day June 9Christian theologian and bishop.He became bishop of Alexandria in 412. Zealously orthodox, he closed the churches of the Novatians, a heterodox sect, and expelled the Jews from Alexandria. His greatest doctrinal conflict was with Nestorius over the nature of Jesus; Cyril emphasized the unity of Jesus' divine and human natures while Nestorius emphasized their distinctness. Cyril condemned Nestorius at the Council of Ephesus (431), only to be condemned himself by bishops who supported Nestorius. Eventually Nestorius was declared a heretic and a compromise on Christ's nature restored peace to the church (433).
* * *▪ Christian theologianborn c. 375died June 27, 444, ; Western feast day June 27; Eastern feast day June 9Christian theologian and bishop active in the complex doctrinal struggles of the 5th century. He is chiefly known for his campaign against Nestorius, bishop of Constantinople, whose views on Christ's nature were to be declared heretical. Cyril was named a doctor of the church in 1882.He succeeded his uncle Theophilus as bishop of the see of Alexandria in 412 and came in conflict with the civil administration over the zeal with which he championed orthodoxy. He closed the churches of the Novatians, a schismatic sect that denied the power of the church to absolve those who had lapsed into idolatry during persecution. He also was involved in the expulsion of Jews from Alexandria following their attacks upon Christians. Riots ensued, and Cyril, who if not directly responsible at least had done nothing to prevent them, was forced to acknowledge the authority of the civil government.Cyril remained a chief citizen of Egypt, and in his struggle with Nestorius he was in some ways a political as well as a religious leader. The conflict concerned not only doctrinal matters; it also reflected the Egyptians' fear that Constantinople might come to dominate them. The religious argument involved the relation of the divine and human within Jesus Christ. Cyril emphasized the unity of the two in one Person, while Nestorius so emphasized their distinctness that he seemed to be splitting Christ into two Persons acting in concert. The conflict came to the fore over Cyril's insistence that the Virgin Mary be called Theotokos (Greek: God-bearer) to describe the intimate union of the two natures in the Incarnation. Nestorius refused to accept such terminology, and their dispute was referred to a general council at Ephesus (Ephesus, councils of) in 431.Armed with a commission to represent Pope Celestine I as well as himself, Cyril convened the council and condemned Nestorius. He had not waited, however, for the arrival of certain bishops from the East, particularly from the see of Antioch, where Nestorius had lived before he became bishop of Constantinople. When they did reach Ephesus, they reconvened the council and condemned Cyril. Papal recognition of Cyril's council was eventually obtained, however, and Nestorius was banished as a heretic. Even so, the dispute continued, and peace in the church was only restored in 433, when Cyril accepted a statement, representing a compromise with Antioch, that emphasized the distinctness of the two natures within the one Person of Christ.In addition to commentaries on selected passages of the first five books of the Old Testament, on Isaiah, and on the Gospels of John and Luke, Cyril's writings included a reply to Against the Galileans by Julian the Apostate, Roman emperor from 361 to 363, who had been brought up as a Christian but announced his conversion to paganism on his accession. This reply, the latest of ancient Christian apologetic works against paganism, also preserves significant extracts from Julian's works.
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Cyril of Alexandria, Saint — • Article on this Doctor of the Church, and anti Nestorian theologian Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
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Cyril of Alexandria — (d. 444) Saint, Patriarch and Theologian. Cyril was the nephew of Patriarch Theophilus and he succeeded his uncle as Patriarch of Alexandria in 412. He is primarily remembered as an indefatigable warrior for orthodoxy. He combated the… … Who’s Who in Christianity
Theophilus of Alexandria, Saint — ▪ Egyptian theologian flourished 5th century; feast day, Egyptian Coptic Church, October 15; in the Syrian Church, October 17 theologian and patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt, violent opponent of non Christian religions, severe critic of… … Universalium
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Saint Cyril (disambiguation) — Saint Cyril may refer to one of the following persons: * Saint Cyril the Philosopher, believed to have co invented the Glagolitic alphabet, the first Slavic alphabet, and translated the Bible into a Slavic language referred to as Old Church… … Wikipedia
Saint — 1347 80, Italian ascetic and mystic. died A.D. 731, pope 715 731. died A.D. 741, pope 731 741. died A.D. 352, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 337 352. died A.D. 683, Sicilian ecclesiastic: pope 682 683. died A.D. 855, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 847… … Universalium
saint — saintless, adj. /saynt/, n. 1. any of certain persons of exceptional holiness of life, formally recognized as such by the Christian Church, esp. by canonization. 2. a person of great holiness, virtue, or benevolence. 3. a founder, sponsor, or… … Universalium
Alexandria — /al ig zan dree euh, zahn /, n. 1. Arabic, Al Iskandarîyah. a seaport in N Egypt, in the Nile delta: founded in 332 B.C. by Alexander the Great; ancient center of learning. 2,201,000. 2. a city in NE Virginia, S of the District of Columbia.… … Universalium
Cyril — /sir euhl/, n. 1. Saint ( Apostle of the Slavs ), A.D. 827 869, Greek missionary to the Moravians. 2. a male given name. * * * (as used in expressions) Burt Sir Cyril Lodowic Cyril and Methodius Saints Cyril of Alexandria Saint Cyril of Jerusalem … Universalium