Cocteau, Jean

born July 5, 1889, Maisons-Laffitte, near Paris, France
died Oct. 11, 1963, Milly-la-Forêt, near Paris

French poet, playwright, and film director.

He published his first collection of poems, La Lampe d'Aladin, at age 19. He converted to Catholicism early but soon renounced religion. During World War I he was an ambulance driver on the Belgian front, the setting for the novel Thomas l'imposteur (1923). In the years when he was addicted to opium, he produced some of his most important works, including the play Orphée (1926) and the novel Les Enfants terribles (1929). His greatest play is thought to be The Infernal Machine (1934). His first film was The Blood of a Poet (1930); he returned to filmmaking in the 1940s, first as a screenwriter and then as a director, and made such admired films as Beauty and the Beast (1945), Orphée (1949), and Le Testament d'Orphée (1960). Musically, Cocteau was closely associated with the group of composers known as Les Six; among other collaborations, he provided ballet scenarios for Erik Satie (Parade, 1917) and Darius Milhaud (Le Boeuf sur le toit, 1920) and wrote librettos for Igor Stravinsky (Oedipus, 1927) and Milhaud (La Voix humaine, 1930). Also an artist, he illustrated numerous books with his vivid drawings, and he worked as a designer as well.

Cocteau, 1939.

Gisèle Freund

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▪ French poet and artist
Introduction
born , July 5, 1889, Maisons-Laffitte, near Paris, France
died October 11, 1963, Milly-la-Forêt, near Paris
 French poet, librettist, novelist, actor, film director, and painter. Some of his most important works include the poem L'Ange Heurtebise (1925; “The Angel Heurtebise”); the play Orphée (1926; Orpheus); the novels Les Enfants terribles (1929; “The Incorrigible Children”; Eng. trans. Children of the Game or The Holy Terrors) and La Machine infernale (1934; The Infernal Machine); and his surrealistic motion pictures Le Sang d'un poète (1930; The Blood of a Poet) and La Belle et la bête (1946; Beauty and the Beast).

Heritage and youth
      Cocteau grew up in Paris and always considered himself Parisian by speech, education, ideas, and habits. His family was of the solid Parisian bourgeoisie—cultivated, wealthy, and interested in music, painting, and literature.

      Cocteau's earliest memories had to do with the theatre, in popular forms, such as the circus and the ice palace, as well as serious theatre, such as the tragedies performed at the Comédie-Française. At age 19 he published his first volume of poems, La Lampe d'Aladin (“Aladdin's Lamp”).

      Cocteau was the product of the years immediately preceding World War I, years of refined artistic taste that were devoid of political turmoil. His real exploration of the world of the theatre began when he encountered the Ballets Russes, then under the direction of Sergey Diaghilev (Diaghilev, Sergey Pavlovich). When Cocteau expressed a desire to create ballets, Diaghilev challenged him to “étonne-moi” (“surprise me”). This famous remark seems to have guided the poet not only in his ballets, such as Parade (1917), with music by Erik Satie (Satie, Erik), and Le Boeuf sur le toit (1920; “The Ox on the Roof”), with music by Darius Milhaud (Milhaud, Darius), but also in his other works; and it is sometimes quoted in his plays and films.

      During World War I, Cocteau served as an ambulance driver on the Belgian front. The landscape he observed there was later used in his novel Thomas l'imposteur (1923; Thomas the Imposter or The Imposter). He became a friend of the aviator Roland Garros and dedicated to him the early poems inspired by aviation, Le Cap de Bonne-Espérance (1919; The Cape of Good Hope). At intervals during the years 1916 and 1917, Cocteau entered the world of modern art, then being born in Paris; in the bohemian Montparnasse section of the city, he met painters such as Pablo Picasso (Picasso, Pablo) and Amedeo Modigliani (Modigliani, Amedeo) and writers such as Max Jacob (Jacob, Max) and Guillaume Apollinaire (Apollinaire, Guillaume).

Influence of Radiguet
      Soon after the war, Max Jacob introduced Cocteau to the future poet and novelist Raymond Radiguet (Radiguet, Raymond). The 16-year-old Radiguet, who appeared to be a prodigy, advocated an aesthetic of simplicity and of classical clarity, qualities that would become characteristic of Cocteau's own work. The example of Radiguet counted tremendously for Cocteau; and when Radiguet died in 1923, at age 21, the older man felt bereft of a friendship that had been based upon a constant interchange of ideas, encouragement, and enthusiasms.

      An addiction to opium, brought on by Cocteau's grief over his lover's death, necessitated a period of cure. Jacques Maritain (Maritain, Jacques), a French Thomist philosopher, paid his first visit to Cocteau in the sanatorium. Through Maritain, Cocteau returned briefly to religious practice. These complex experiences initiated a new period in his life, during which he produced some of his most important works. In the long poem L'Ange Heurtebise the poet engages in a violent combat with an angel that was to reappear continually in his works. His play Orphée, first performed in 1926, was destined to play a part in the resurrection of tragedy in contemporary theatre; in it, Cocteau deepened his interpretation of the nature of the poet. The novel Les Enfants terribles, written in the space of three weeks in March 1929, is the study of the inviolability of the character of two adolescents, the brother and sister Paul and Elisabeth. In 1950 Cocteau prepared the screenplay for a film of this work, and he was also the film's narrator.

      Cocteau had enlarged the scope of his work by the creation of his first film, Le Sang d'un poète, a commentary on his own private mythology; the themes that then seemed obscure or shocking seem today less private and more universal because they have appeared in other works. Also in the early 1930s Cocteau wrote what is usually thought to be his greatest play, La Machine infernale, a treatment of the Oedipus theme that is very much his own. In these two works he moved into closer contact with the great myths of humanity.

Filmmaking in the 1940s
      In the 1940s Cocteau returned to filmmaking, first as a screenwriter and then also as a director in La Belle et la bête, a fantasy based on the children's tale, and Orphée (1949), a re-creation of the themes of poetry and death that he had dealt with in his play.

      Also a visual artist of significance, Cocteau in 1950 decorated the Villa Santo Sospir in Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat and began a series of important graphic works: frescoes on the City Hall in Menton, the Chapel of Saint-Pierre in Villefranche-sur-Mer, and the Church of Saint-Blaise-des-Simples in Milly-la-Forêt. His adopted son, the painter Édouard Dermit, who also appears in his later films, continued the decoration of a chapel at Fréjus, a work Cocteau had not completed at his death at age 74.

Wallace Fowlie

Additional Reading
Francis Steegmuller, Cocteau: A Biography (1970, reissued 1986), is the most fully documented study of Cocteau's life that has yet appeared. Biographical information also appears in Bettina L. Knapp, Jean Cocteau, updated ed. (1989), and Jean Cocteau and the French Scene (1984), a collection of illustrated essays. Critical studies of Cocteau's works include Wallace Fowlie, Jean Cocteau: The History of a Poet's Age (1966), a discussion of the various genres used by Cocteau in his writings that attempts to analyze the success or lack of success of the various works in terms of the historical moment at which they appeared; Neal Oxenhandler, Scandal & Parade: The Theater of Jean Cocteau (1957), an analysis of his plays based largely on the myths behind the plays and the personal myths or legends of Cocteau himself; Frank W.D. Ries, The Dance Theatre of Jean Cocteau (1986); and William Emboden, The Visual Art of Jean Cocteau (1989), which includes illustrations of his drawings, paintings, designs, and sculpture.

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Universalium. 2010.

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