Charcot, Jean-Martin

born Nov. 29, 1825, Paris, Fr.
died Aug. 16, 1893, Morvan

French medical teacher and clinician.

With Guillaume Duchenne (b. 1806
d. 1875) he is considered the founder of modern neurology. In 1882 he opened Europe's greatest neurological clinic of the day. An extraordinary teacher, he was known for his work with hysteria and hypnosis, which influenced many students, including Sigmund Freud. He described the symptoms of locomotor ataxia and the disintegration of ligaments and joint surfaces it causes (Charcot disease, Charcot joint), pioneered the linking of brain sites with specific functions, and discovered miliary aneurysms in the brain.

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▪ French neurologist
born Nov. 29, 1825, Paris, France
died Aug. 16, 1893, Morvan
 founder (with Guillaume Duchenne) of modern neurology and one of France's greatest medical teachers and clinicians.

      Charcot took his M.D. at the University of Paris in 1853 and three years later was appointed physician of the Central Hospital bureau. He then became a professor at the University of Paris (1860–93), where he began a lifelong association with the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris (1862); there, in 1882, he opened what was to become the greatest neurological clinic of the time in Europe. A teacher of extraordinary competence, he attracted students from all parts of the world. In 1885 one of his students was Sigmund Freud (Freud, Sigmund), and it was Charcot's employment of hypnosis in an attempt to discover an organic basis for hysteria that stimulated Freud's interest in the psychological origins of neurosis.

      In his study of muscular atrophy, Charcot described the symptoms of locomotor ataxia, a degeneration of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord and of the sensory nerve trunks. He was also first to describe the disintegration of ligaments and joint surfaces (Charcot's disease, or Charcot's joint (neurogenic arthropathy)) caused by locomotor ataxia and other related diseases or injuries. He conducted pioneering research in cerebral localization, the determination of specific sites in the brain responsible for specific nervous functions, and he discovered miliary aneurysms (dilation of the small arteries feeding the brain), demonstrating their importance in cerebral hemorrhage.

      Charcot's writings include Leçons sur les maladies du système nerveux, 5 vol. (1872–83; Lectures on the Diseases of the Nervous System) and Leçons du mardi à la Salpêtrière (1888; “Tuesday Lessons at the Salpêtrière”).

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Universalium. 2010.

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