Cauchy, AugustinLouis, Baron

born Aug. 21, 1789, Paris, Francedied May 23, 1857, SceauxFrench mathematician, pioneer of analysis and group theory.After a career as a military engineer in Napoleon's navy, he wrote a treatise in 1813 that became the basis of the theory of complex variables. He also clarified the theory of calculus by developing the concepts of limits and continuity, laid the foundations for the mathematical theory of elasticity, and made important contributions to number theory. He is considered one of the greatest mathematicians of the modern era.
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▪ French mathematicianborn Aug. 21, 1789, Paris, Fr.died May 23, 1857, SceauxFrench mathematician who pioneered in analysis and the theory of substitution groups (groups whose elements are ordered sequences of a set of things). He was one of the greatest of modern mathematicians.At the onset of the Reign of Terror (1793–94) during the French Revolution, Cauchy's family fled from Paris to the village of Arcueil, where Cauchy first became acquainted with the mathematician PierreSimon Laplace (Laplace, PierreSimon, marquis de) and the chemist ClaudeLouis Berthollet (Berthollet, ClaudeLouis).Cauchy became a military engineer and in 1810 went to Cherbourg to work on the harbours and fortifications for Napoleon's English invasion fleet. In spite of his work load he produced several mathematical papers of note, including the solution of a problem sent to him by JosephLouis Lagrange that established a relationship between the number of edges, the number of vertices, and the number of faces of a convex polyhedron, and the solution of Pierre de Fermat's problem on polygonal numbers.Cauchy returned to Paris in 1813, and Lagrange and Laplace persuaded him to devote himself entirely to mathematics. The following year he published the memoir on definite integrals that became the basis of the theory of complex functions. From 1816 he held professorships in the Faculty of Sciences, the Collège de France, and the École Polytechnique, all in Paris. When Gaspard Monge was expelled for political reasons from the Academy of Sciences (1816), Cauchy was appointed to fill the vacancy. The same year he won the grand prix of the Institute of France for a paper on wave propagation, now accepted as a classic in hydrodynamics. In 1822 he laid the foundations of the mathematical theory of elasticity.Cauchy's greatest contributions to mathematics, characterized by the clear and rigorous methods that he introduced, are embodied predominantly in his three great treatises: Cours d'analyse de l'École Royale Polytechnique (1821; “Courses on Analysis from the École Royale Polytechnique”); Résumé des leçons sur le calcul infinitésimal (1823; “Résumé of Lessons on Infinitesimal Calculus”); and Leçons sur les applications du calcul infinitésimal à la géométrie (1826–28; “Lessons on the Applications of Infinitesimal calculus to Geometry”). The first phase of modern rigour in mathematics originated in his lectures and researches in analysis during the 1820s. He clarified the principles of calculus and put them on a satisfactory basis by developing them with the aid of limits and continuity, concepts now considered vital to analysis. To the same period belongs his development of the theory of functions of a complex variable (a variable involving a multiple of the square root of minus one), today indispensable in applied mathematics from physics to aeronautics.Although acting only from the highest motives, Cauchy often offended his colleagues by his selfrighteous obstinacy and aggressive religious bigotry. Upon the exile of Charles X in 1830 and the ascension of LouisPhilippe to the throne, Cauchy went into exile, too, rather than take the oath of allegiance. A chair of mathematical physics was created for him at the University of Turin, but in 1833 he left to tutor the Duke de Bordeaux, grandson of Charles X. In 1838, with the suspension of the oath, he returned to France, resuming his chair at the École Polytechnique.Cauchy made substantial contributions to the theory of numbers and wrote three important papers on error theory. His work in optics provided a mathematical basis for the workable but somewhat unsatisfactory theory of the properties of the ether, a hypothetical, omnipresent medium once thought to be the conductor of light. His collected works, Oeuvres complètes d'Augustin Cauchy (1882–1970), were published in 27 volumes.* * *
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Cauchy, AugustinLouis, barón — (21 ago. 1789, París, Francia–23 may. 1857, Sceaux). Matemático francés, pionero del análisis y de la teoría de grupos. Después de una carrera como ingeniero militar en la armada de Napoleón, escribió un tratado en 1813 que se convirtió en la… … Enciclopedia Universal
AugustinLouis Cauchy — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Cauchy. Augustin Louis Cauchy … Wikipédia en Français
AugustinLouis Cauchy — Augustin Louis Cauchy † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Augustin Louis Cauchy French mathematician, b. at Paris, 21 August, 1789; d. at Sceaux, 23 May, 1857. He owed his early training to his father, a man of much learning and literary taste … Catholic encyclopedia
Augustin Louis Cauchy — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Cauchy. Augustin Louis Cauchy Cauchy vers 1840. Lithographie de Zéphirin Belliard d après une peinture de Jean Roller … Wikipédia en Français
Augustin Louis Cauchy — Infobox Scientist name = Augustin Louis Cauchy image width = 200px caption = Augustin Louis Cauchy birth date = birth date1789821df=y birth place = Paris, France death date = death date and age18575231789821df=y death place = Sceaux,… … Wikipedia
Cauchy,Baron Augustin Louis — Cau·chy (kō shēʹ), Baron Augustin Louis. 1789 1857. French mathematician whose Cours d Analyse (1821) introduced modern rigor into calculus. He founded the theory of functions of a complex variable and made contributions to the mathematical… … Universalium
Cauchy , Baron Augustin Louis — (1789–1857) French mathematician Cauchy showed great mathematical talent at an early age and came to the attention of Joseph Lagrange and Pierre Laplace, who encouraged him in his studies. Born in Paris, France, he was educated at the Ecole… … Scientists
Augustin Cauchy — Augustin Louis Cauchy Pour les articles homonymes, voir Cauchy. Augustin Louis Cauchy … Wikipédia en Français
Louis — Louis, Joe * * * (as used in expressions) Henry Louis Aaron Louis Francis Cristillo Agassiz, (Jean) Louis (Rodolphe) Aragon, Louis Louis Andrieux Armstrong, Louis Barrault, Jean Louis Barthou, (Jean) Louis Barye, Antoine Louis Berger, Victor… … Enciclopedia Universal
CauchySchwarz inequality — /koh shee shwawrts , koh shee shvahrts /, Math. See Schwarz inequality (def. 2). * * * Any of several related inequalities developed by Augustin Louis Cauchy and, later, Herman Schwarz (1843–1921). The inequalities arise from assigning a real… … Universalium