Cartier, Jacques

died Sept. 1, 1557, near Saint-Malo

French sailor and explorer.

He was commissioned by Francis I to explore North America in the hope of discovering gold, spices, and a passage to Asia. Cartier's explorations of the North American coast and the St. Lawrence River (1534, 1535, 1541–42) did not produce the desired results, but they did lay the basis for later French claims to Canada.

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▪ French explorer
born 1491, Saint-Malo, Brittany, France
died Sept. 1, 1557, near Saint-Malo
 French mariner, whose explorations of the North American coast and the St. Lawrence River (Saint Lawrence River and Seaway) (1534, 1535, 1541–42) laid the basis for later French claims to Canada. He appears also to have voyaged to Brazil.

      When King Francis I of France decided in 1534 to send an expedition to explore the northern lands in the hope of discovering gold, spices, and a passage to Asia, Cartier received the commission.

      Cartier sailed from Saint-Malo on April 20, 1534, with two ships and 61 men; he explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Saint Lawrence, Gulf of) as far as Anticosti Island, then seized two Indians at Gaspé and sailed back to France. His report piqued the curiosity of Francis I sufficiently for him to send Cartier back the following year, with three ships and 110 men, to explore further. Guided by the two Indians he had brought back, he sailed up the St. Lawrence as far as Quebec and established a base near an Iroquois village. In September he proceeded with a small party as far as the island of Montreal, where navigation was barred by rapids. He was warmly welcomed by the resident Iroquois, but he spent only a few hours among them before returning to winter at his base. He had, however, learned from the Indians that two rivers led farther west to lands where gold, silver, copper, and spices abounded.

      The severity of the winter came as a terrible shock; no Europeans since the Vikings had wintered that far north on the American continent, and a mild winter was expected because Quebec lay at a lower latitude than Paris. Scurvy claimed 25 of Cartier's men. To make matters worse, the explorers earned the enmity of the Iroquois. Thus, in May, as soon as the river was free of ice, they treacherously seized some of the Iroquois chiefs and sailed for France. Cartier was able to report only that great riches lay farther in the interior and that a great river, said to be 800 leagues (about 2,000 miles [3,200 kilometres]) long, possibly led to Asia.

      War in Europe prevented Francis I from sending another expedition until 1541. This time, to secure French title against the counterclaims of Spain, he commissioned a nobleman, Jean-François de La Rocque de Roberval (Roberval, Jean-François de La Rocque, Sieur de), to establish a colony in the lands discovered by Cartier, who was appointed Roberval's subaltern. Cartier sailed first, arriving at Quebec on August 23; Roberval was delayed until the following year. Cartier again visited Montreal, but as before he remained only a few hours and failed to go even the few miles necessary to get beyond the rapids. The subsequent maps based on the knowledge he provided fail to indicate that he had reached a large island at the confluence of the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers.

      The winter at his new base above Quebec proved as severe as the earlier one. Cartier appears to have been unable to maintain discipline among his men, and their actions again aroused the hostility of the local Indians. But what were thought to be gold and diamonds were found in abundance. In the spring, not waiting for Roberval to arrive with the main body of colonists, Cartier abandoned the base and sailed for France. En route he stopped at Newfoundland, where he encountered Roberval, who ordered him back to Quebec. Cartier, however, stole away during the night and continued back to France. There, his mineral specimens were found to be valueless. Roberval enjoyed no better success. After one winter he abandoned the plan to found a colony and returned to France. The disappointment at these meagre results was very great. Not for more than half a century did France again show interest in these new lands.

      Cartier received no new commissions from the crown. He apparently spent his remaining years attending to his business affairs at his estate near Saint-Malo. His claim to fame rests on his exploration of the St. Lawrence River to the height of navigation. Yet his failure to proceed any farther (when it would have been easy to do so), his treacherous dealings with the Iroquois, and his leaving Roberval in the lurch detract somewhat from his stature.

W.J. Eccles

Additional Reading
The journals of Cartier's voyages, in original and translation, were edited by H.P. Biggar, The Voyages of Jacques Cartier (1924), as was A Collection of Documents Relating to Jacques Cartier and the Sieur de Roberval (1930). Bernard G. Hoffman, Cabot to Cartier (1961), critically examines the source material. The best account of Cartier's voyages is in Marcel Trudel, Histoire de la Nouvelle-France: Les vaines tentatives 1524–1603 (1963). Briefer accounts, in English, are contained in J.B. Brebner, The Explorers of North America (1933); and W.J. Eccles, The Canadian Frontier, 1534–1760 (1969).

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Universalium. 2010.

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