Calonne, Charles-Alexandre de
born Jan. 20, 1734, Douai, Francedied Oct. 29, 1802, ParisFrench politician.He served as intendant of Metz (1768) and Lille (1774), and his financial genius led to his appointment as controller general of finance (1783). He soon discovered that major reforms were necessary to save France from bankruptcy. His efforts precipitated the governmental crisis that led to the French Revolution. After the Revolution began, he devoted himself to the cause of counterrevolution from his exile in England.
* * *▪ French statesmanborn Jan. 20, 1734, Douai, Francedied Oct. 29, 1802, ParisFrench statesman whose efforts to reform the structure of his nation's finance and administration precipitated the governmental crisis that led to the French Revolution of 1789.The son of a magistrate of Douai, Calonne held various posts in French Flanders and in Artois before becoming intendant of Metz (1768) and of Lille (1774). His financial genius and court connections led to his appointment as controller general of finance in November 1783. At that time the French government was heavily in debt from the aid that it had provided the colonists during the American Revolution (1775–83). Calonne reconstituted a sinking fund (1784) to pay off the debt, and in 1785 he reformed the gold coinage. He soon discovered, however, that major reforms were necessary to save France from bankruptcy. In August 1786 he submitted to King Louis XVI a far-reaching plan of reform that involved increasing the taxation of the privileged noble and clerical orders through a proportional tax on land.Recognizing that the Parlements (high courts of justice) would reject his proposals, Calonne submitted them instead to a special Assembly of Notables—nobles, clergy, and magistrates—which convened on Feb. 22, 1787. Nevertheless, the intrigues of his political opponents and the antagonism of the higher clergy and magistrates in the assembly thwarted his efforts. His revelation of the annual deficit of more than 100,000,000 livres and the failure of his reform schemes ensured the summons of the Estates-General in August 1788, which in turn led directly to the French Revolution. In April 1787 Louis XVI dismissed Calonne from office, and four months later he withdrew to England.After the Revolution began, Calonne devoted himself to the cause of counterrevolution. From exile he criticized the National Assembly's efforts to abolish most of France's feudal institutions. He was chief adviser to the émigrés (nobles in exile) from December 1790 until the fall of the monarchy in August 1792. In 1802, during Napoleon Bonaparte's Consulate regime, Calonne returned to France; he died soon thereafter.
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Calonne, Charles-Alexandre de — (1734 1802) political figure Born in Douai, where he served (1759) as procurator general of the parlement, Charles Alexandre de Calonne became intendant general of Metz (1766), then of Lille (1778), where he proved his administrative… … France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present
Calonne, Charles Alexandre de — ► (1734 1802) Político y economista francés. Nombrado inspector general de finanzas en 1783, propuso una asamblea de notables (1787) para establecer un sistema de impuestos que suprimiera las exenciones injustas … Enciclopedia Universal
Calonne, Charles-Alexandre de — (20 ene. 1734, Douai, Francia–29 oct. 1802, París). Político francés. Fue intendente de Metz (1768) y Lille (1774). Su talento en las finanzas lo llevó a ser designado director general de finanzas (1783). Pronto descubrió que era necesario hacer… … Enciclopedia Universal
CALONNE, CHARLES ALEXANDRE DE — French financier under Louis XVI., born at Douay; a man of fiscal genius; genius for persuading, before all things for borrowing ; succeeded Necker in 1783 as comptroller general of the finances in France; after four years of desperate… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Charles Alexandre De Calonne — Portrait par Élisabeth Vigée Lebrun. Charles Alexandre de Calonne, né à Douai le 20 janvier 1734 et mort à Paris le 30 octobre 180 … Wikipédia en Français
Charles Alexandre de Calonne — by Élisabeth Louise Vigée Le Brun (1784) London, Royal Collection Charles Alexandre, vicomte de Calonne (20 January 1734, Douai – 30 October 1802) was a French statesman, best known for his involvement in the French Revolution … Wikipedia
Charles Alexandre de Calonne — Charles Alexandre de Calonne, retrato por Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée Lebrun. Charles Alexandre, vizconde de Calonne (1734 30 de octubre de 1802) fue un estadista francés. Contenido … Wikipedia Español
Charles Alexandre de Calonne — Pour les personnes ayant le même patronyme, voir Calonne. Charles Alexandre de Calonne … Wikipédia en Français
Charles Alexandre de Calonne — Charles Alexandre, vicomte de Calonne (* 1734 in Douai; † 30. Oktober 1802) war französischer Staatsmann, Generalkontrolleur der Finanzen (1783–1787), eine der führenden Gestalten der konterrevolutionären Emigration. Leben Vicomte de Calonne,… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Charles Alexandre de Calonne — Charles Alexandre de Calonne, (Douai, 1734 París, 1802). Hacendista y político francés que protagonizó el último intento de reformar las finanzas de la Monarquía de Luis XVI, cuyo fracaso condujo al estallido de la Revolución de 1789. Calonne se… … Enciclopedia Universal