Burr, Aaron

born Feb. 6, 1756, Newark, N.J.
died Sept. 14, 1836, Port Richmond, N.Y., U.S.

U.S. politician, third vice president of the U.S. (1801–05).

He served in the American Revolution on George Washington's staff until 1779. He had a successful law practice in New York from 1782 and served as state attorney general (1789–91) and in the U.S. Senate (1791–97). In 1800 he won the vice presidential nomination on the Jeffersonian Republican ticket. In the election, he and Thomas Jefferson received the same number of electoral college votes; under procedures then prevailing, the electors had cast their votes for both Jefferson and Burr without indicating which should be president and which vice president. The election went to the House of Representatives, which became deadlocked. Jefferson eventually was chosen president after Alexander Hamilton endorsed him; Burr became vice president. Burr resented Hamilton's action and his later effort to block Burr's nomination for governor of New York in 1804. Following some remarks by Hamilton about Burr's character, Burr challenged him to a duel, in which Hamilton was mortally wounded. Burr fled to Philadelphia, where with Gen. James Wilkinson he planned an invasion of Mexico. He was tried for treason in 1807 before John Marshall, whose narrow interpretation of the constitutional charge led to acquittal. Under a cloud, Burr left for Europe, where he tried in vain to interest English and French authorities in his scheme to conquer Florida. In 1812 he returned to New York to resume his law practice.

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▪ vice president of United States
born February 6, 1756, Newark, New Jersey [U.S.]
died September 14, 1836, Port Richmond, New York, U.S.
 third vice president of the United States (1801–05), who killed his political rival, Alexander Hamilton (Hamilton, Alexander), in a duel (1804), and whose turbulent political career ended with his arrest for treason in 1807.

      Burr, the son of Aaron Burr and Esther Edwards, came from a prominent New Jersey family and was a grandson of the theologian Jonathan Edwards (Edwards, Jonathan). He studied law and served on the staff of General George Washington (Washington, George) during the American Revolution (1775–83) but was transferred after antagonizing him.

      In 1782 Burr was admitted to the New York state bar, and his law practice in New York City soon flourished. In 1784 and 1785 he was elected to the state assembly, and in 1789 he was appointed attorney general by Governor George Clinton (Clinton, George). By 1791 he had built a successful political coalition against General Philip Schuyler (Schuyler, Philip John), father-in-law of Alexander Hamilton (then secretary of the treasury), and won election to the United States Senate, incurring the enmity of Hamilton. Burr failed to win reelection in 1797 and spent the next two years in state politics.

 In 1800 Burr won the vice presidential nomination on the Jeffersonian Republican ticket. He carried New York state and thus helped bring about a national victory for his party. Under the electoral college procedures then prevailing, the electors had cast their votes for both Thomas Jefferson (Jefferson, Thomas) and Burr without indicating which should be president and which vice president. Both men had an equal number of electoral votes, and the Federalist-controlled House of Representatives (Representatives, House of) had to break the tie. Although Burr maintained that he would not challenge Jefferson—an assertion that Jefferson did not wholly accept—Hamilton's determined opposition to Burr was a strong factor in Jefferson's election after 36 ballots. (In 1804 the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Constitution of the United States) was adopted, requiring electors to cast separate ballots for president and vice president.)

      In February 1804 Burr's friends in the New York legislature nominated him for the governorship. Hamilton helped to contribute to Burr's defeat by disseminating letters containing derogatory comments about Burr, and shortly thereafter Clinton replaced him as the Republican vice presidential candidate. Once again Burr felt himself to be the political victim of Hamilton's animosity, and he challenged him to a duel (July 11, 1804) at Weehawken, New Jersey, in which Hamilton was killed.

      Arrest warrants were issued for Burr, whom many now viewed as a murderer, and he fled to Philadelphia, where he contacted his friend General James Wilkinson (Wilkinson, James), a United States Army officer secretly in the pay of Spain. Expecting war to break out between the United States and Spain over boundary disputes, Wilkinson and Burr planned an invasion of Mexico in order to establish an independent government there. Possibly—the record is inconclusive—they also discussed a plan to foment a secessionist movement in the West and, joining it to Mexico, to found an empire on the Napoleonic model. In any event, Wilkinson became alarmed and betrayed Burr to President Jefferson. Trying to escape to Spanish territory, Burr was arrested and returned for trial in the Circuit Court in Richmond, Virginia (May 1807), before Chief Justice John Marshall (Marshall, John).

      Although the evidence showed only that Burr had planned an illegal attack upon Spanish territory, he was tried for treason, and though he was acquitted, he remained under a cloud of suspicion and distrust. He soon left for Europe, where he tried in vain to enlist the aid of Napoleon (Napoleon I) in a plan to conquer Florida. Burr remained abroad for four years, living in customary indebtedness. He returned to New York in 1812 and practiced law. He married a wealthy widow, Elizabeth Brown Jumel, in 1833, though he frittered away much of her wealth within a year. Eventually she sued for divorce on grounds of adultery, and a divorce decree was granted on the day Burr died in 1836.

Additional Reading
Most works on Burr focus on his duel with Hamilton and the charges for treason. They include Milton Lomask, Aaron Burr, 2 vol. (1979–82); Arnold A. Rogow, A Fatal Friendship: Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr (1998); and Thomas Fleming, Duel: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Future of America (1999).

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Universalium. 2010.

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