- South Slavic language spoken by about nine million people in Bulgaria and enclaves in Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, and Turkey.Closely related is Macedonian, spoken by two to three million people in Macedonia, adjacent parts of Albania and Greece, and enclaves elsewhere. Both languages differ from other major Slavic languages in several features. Both are direct descendants of Old Church Slavonic. Under Ottoman rule, literary production was solely in Church Slavonic. The Bulgarian vernacular became a literary language only in the mid-19th century; it was codified on the basis of northeastern Bulgarian dialects in 1899. Though efforts to create a literary Macedonian were underway before the Balkan Wars (1912–13), it was not formally recognized as a distinct language until the declaration of a Macedonian Republic within nascent communist Yugoslavia (1944).
* * *Bulgarian Bŭlgarski ezikSouth Slavic language written in the Cyrillic alphabet and spoken in Bulgaria and parts of Greece, Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine. Together with Macedonian, to which it is most closely related, Bulgarian contrasts sharply with the other Slavic languages in its almost complete loss of case declension in the noun and in its use of certain grammatical features found in Balkan languages that belong to other language families. For example, the definite article is placed after the noun or adjective (e.g., masa ‘table,' masata ‘the table'), as in Albanian and Romanian, and the infinitive form of the verb is replaced with a clause, as in modern Greek, Albanian, and Romanian. The literary language has free stress accent (with consequent reductions of unstressed vowels) that has replaced an earlier pitch accent (i.e., tone).The history of Bulgarian is divided into three periods: (1) Old Bulgarian, 9th–11th century (for those who adopt the view that Old Church Slavonic (Old Church Slavonic language) is based on Old Bulgarian); (2) Middle Bulgarian, 12th–16th century; and (3) Modern Bulgarian, from the 16th century to the present. The loss of cases in the noun, as well as many other linguistic changes, took place during the Middle Bulgarian period, which began with the subjugation of Bulgaria by the Byzantine Empire. The modern Bulgarian written language, which stems from the language of the widely read religious collections of the 16th century, did not become fully established until the 19th century; its vocabulary contains a sizable number of Russian and Church Slavonic loanwords, although a purist movement during the period between World Wars I and II attempted to replace these words and loanwords from other languages with native Bulgarian words.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Bulgarian language — Not to be confused with Bulgar language. Bulgarian Български език Bălgarski ezik Spoken in Bulgaria, Turkey, Serbia, Greece, Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, Albania, Kosovo, Repub … Wikipedia
History of the Bulgarian language — The History of the Bulgarian language can be divided into four major periods: * prehistoric period (from the time of the settlement of the Bulgarian Slavs on the Balkans until the late 9th century); * Old Bulgarian (from the late 9th until the… … Wikipedia
Institute for Bulgarian Language — The Institute for Bulgarian Language (in Bulgarian: Институт за български език) is the language regulator of the Bulgarian language. It was created on May 15, 1942 and is based in Sofia. The institute develops a national dictionary, publishes… … Wikipedia
List of Bulgarian language poets — The list of Bulgarian language poets includes those literary figures who are notable for their poetry written in the native tongue of Bulgaria. This language is also spoken in parts of the Ukraine, Moldova, Turkey, Greece, Romania, and… … Wikipedia
Bulgarian dialects — ( bg. български диалекти, balgarski dialekti , also български говори, balgarski govori or български наречия, balgarski narechiya ) are the regional spoken varieties of the Bulgarian language, a South Slavic language. Bulgarian dialectology dates… … Wikipedia
Bulgarian Orthodox Church — Българска православна църква Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Sofia Founder Apostle Andrew, Boris I of Bulgaria Independence … Wikipedia
Bulgarian grammar — is the grammar of the Bulgarian language. The Bulgarian language is a South Slavic language that also is one of the members of the Balkan sprachbund. As such, it shares several grammatical innovations with the other southwest Balkan languages… … Wikipedia
Bulgarian Americans — are citizens of the United States with significant Bulgarian heritage. Those can include Bulgarian Americans living in the United States for one or several generations, dual Bulgarian American citizens, or any other Bulgarian Americans who… … Wikipedia
Bulgarian — refers to anything of or relating to Bulgaria and may refer directly to the following articles:* Bulgaria * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgar language, a Turkic language * Bulgarians, an ethnic group * Bulgarian name, names of… … Wikipedia
Bulgarian literature — is literature written by Bulgarians or residents of Bulgaria, or written in the Bulgarian language; usually the latter is the defining feature. Bulgarian literature can be said to be one of the oldest among the Slavic peoples, having its roots… … Wikipedia