died March 7, 1932, ParisFrench statesman.He became secretary-general of the French Socialist Party in 1901 and served in the Chamber of Deputies (1902–32). Between 1909 and 1929 he served 11 times as premier of France, and he held 26 ministerial posts between 1906 and 1932. His achievements included the Pact of Locarno and the Kellogg-Briand Pact. For his efforts for international cooperation, the League of Nations, and world peace, he shared the 1926 Nobel Prize for Peace with Gustav Stresemann.
* * *▪ prime minister of Franceborn March 28, 1862, Nantes, Francedied March 7, 1932, Parisstatesman who served 11 times as premier of France, holding a total of 26 ministerial posts between 1906 and 1932. His efforts for international cooperation, the League of Nations, and world peace brought him the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1926, which he shared with Gustav Stresemann (Stresemann, Gustav) of Germany.As a law student, Briand became associated with left-wing causes, writing for such publications as Le Peuple, La Lanterne, and Petite République, and in 1904 he joined Jean Jaurès (Jaurès, Jean) in founding L'Humanité. In 1894 Briand succeeded in getting the sharply divided French trade unionists to adopt the general strike as a political tactic at a workers' congress at Nantes.After three unsuccessful attempts (1889, 1893, and 1898) to be elected to the Chamber of Deputies, Briand became secretary-general of the Socialist Party in 1901. In 1902 he finally won election as a deputy from the Loire département and remained a member of the chamber until his death.Briand's first great success in government came with his work on the commission that drafted a law of separation of church and state in 1905; he succeeded in carrying this reform into law with only slight modifications. This achievement led to his appointment as minister of public education and culture in March 1906, but his acceptance of a post in a bourgeois Cabinet widened his break with Jaurès and other Socialists. Unlike Jaurès, Briand contended that the Socialists should cooperate with the Radicals in all matters of reform.After serving another term as education minister in the first government of Georges Clemenceau (1906–09), he became premier from July 1909 to November 1910. He served two more terms, briefly, before his plan for proportional representation met defeat in the Senate in March 1913.On the fall of the Cabinet of René Viviani in October 1915, Briand again became premier; he also took control of foreign affairs. He formed his sixth Cabinet in December 1916 but still failed to cope with the lagging war effort.Forced to resign (March 1917) because of mounting pressures and the unsuccessful Balkan campaign, Briand spent the next three years taking little part in public affairs except for his outspoken advocacy of the League of Nations and the concept of collective security. He returned to the premiership in January 1921, but his failures in foreign policy forced his resignation on Jan. 12, 1922.In April 1925, under Premier Paul Painlevé, he again took the post of foreign minister—a post he held in 14 successive governments, four of which (three in 1925–26, the last in 1929) he headed himself. During that period his successes were the Pact of Locarno (Locarno, Pact of) (1925), in which he, Gustav Stresemann of Germany, and Austen Chamberlain of Britain sought to normalize relations between Germany and its former enemies; and the Kellogg-Briand Pact (Aug. 27, 1928), in which 60 nations agreed to outlaw war as an instrument of national policy. In December 1930 Briand publicly, and boldly for the times, advocated a federal union of Europe.Briand finally retired in January 1932, after an unsuccessful campaign for the presidency of the French Republic, and died shortly thereafter.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Briand, Aristide — (1862 1932) statesman, Nobel laureate The editor of l humanité and a Nobel laureate, Aristide Briand was born in Nantes and educated in law at Paris. Secretary general of the French Socialist Party, he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies … France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present
Briand, Aristide — (1862–1932) A French politician and statesman, Aristide Briand started his career in the French Socialist Party, associating himself with the most advanced movements. In 1894, Briand persuaded the trade unions to adopt general strike as a… … Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914
Briand, Aristide — ► (1862 1932) Político socialista francés. Agitador revolucionario en su juventud. Director de La Lanterne y cofundador, con Jaurès, de L´Humanité. Fue premio Nobel de la Paz en 1926, compartido con G. Stresemann. * * * (28 mar. 1862, Nantes,… … Enciclopedia Universal
Briand,Aristide — Bri·and (brē ändʹ, äɴʹ), Aristide. 1862 1932. French politician who became prime minister for the first of 11 times in 1909. As foreign minister he was the chief architect of the Locarno Pact (1925), which guaranteed the borders of Belgium,… … Universalium
Aristide Briand — Mandats 41e, 45e, 50e, 56e, 61e et 65e président du Conseil 24 juillet& … Wikipédia en Français
Aristide Briant — Aristide Briand Aristide Briand Aristide Briand Naissance 28 mars 1862 Nantes, France Dé … Wikipédia en Français
Aristide Briand — (* 28. März 1862 in Nantes, Frankreich; † 7. März 1932 in Paris) war ein französischer Politiker. Briand bekleidete zwischen 1909 und 1932 mit Unterbrechungen wechselnd die Ämter des französischen Ministerprä … Deutsch Wikipedia
Aristide Briand — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Aristide Briand (n. Nantes, 28 de marzo de 1862 † París, 7 de marzo de 1932), político francés considerado uno de los precursores de la unidad europea. En 1930 elaboró el Memorando Briand, una propuesta generalizada… … Wikipedia Español
BRIAND (A.) — BRIAND ARISTIDE (1862 1932) De famille modeste, Aristide Briand devient avocat. Comme militant socialiste, puis comme journaliste, il se fait une réputation de révolutionnaire. En 1883, il quitte Nantes et vient à Paris. Secrétaire général du… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Briand — is a surname, and may refer to:* Anne Briand * Aristide Briand * Ben Briand * Denis Briand * Jean Olivier Briand * Jimmy Briand * Ludwig Briand * Pascal Briand … Wikipedia