Bothnia, Gulf of

Northern arm of the Baltic Sea.

Extending between Sweden and Finland, it covers about 45,200 sq mi (117,000 sq km). It is 450 mi (725 km) long and 50–150 mi (80–240 km) wide; its average depth is 965 ft (295 m). Because many rivers drain into it, its salinity is very low; ice cover consequently lasts up to five months of the year.

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Swedish  Bottniska Viken,  Finnish  Pohjan Lahti,  

      northern arm of the Baltic Sea, between Sweden (west) and Finland (east). Covering an area of about 45,200 square miles (117,000 square km), the gulf extends for 450 miles (725 km) from north to south but only 50 to 150 miles (80 to 240 km) from east to west; it is nearly closed off by the Åland (Ahvenanmaa) Islands (south). Its maximum depth is 965 feet (295 m) in the west-central portion; its average depth is only about 200 feet (60 m). Because it receives the water of so many rivers, including the Ångerman, Ume, Lule, Torne, Kemi, and Oulu, its salinity is extremely low, and, in consequence, ice cover is maintained for up to five months in the winter. There are many small islands, making navigation difficult. The main gulf ports are Pori, Vaasa (Vasa), and Oulu in Finland and Luleå, Härnösand, Sundsvall, and Gävle in Sweden. Many coastal sawmills process the vast forest resources of the hinterland, which was formerly called Bothnia (Botten), whence the gulf's name.

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Universalium. 2010.

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