Benjamin, Walter

born July 15, 1892, Berlin, Ger.
died Sept. 26, 1940, near Port-Bou, Spain

German literary critic.

Born into a prosperous Jewish family, Benjamin studied philosophy and worked as a literary critic and translator in Berlin from 1920 until 1933, when he fled to France to avoid persecution. The Nazi takeover of France led him to flee again in 1940; he committed suicide at the Spanish border on hearing that he would be turned over to the Gestapo. Posthumous publication of his essays has won him a reputation as the leading German literary critic of the first half of the 20th century; he was also one of the first serious writers about film and photography. His independence and originality are evident in the essays collected in Illuminations (1961) and Reflections (1979). His writings on art reflect his reading of Karl Marx and his friendships with Bertolt Brecht and Theodor Adorno.

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▪ German literary critic
born July 15, 1892, Berlin, Ger.
died Sept. 27?, 1940, near Port-Bou, Spain

      man of letters and aesthetician, now considered to have been the most important German literary critic in the first half of the 20th century.

      Born into a prosperous Jewish family, Benjamin studied philosophy in Berlin, Freiburg im Breisgau, Munich, and Bern. He settled in Berlin in 1920 and worked thereafter as a literary critic and translator. His halfhearted pursuit of an academic career was cut short when the University of Frankfurt rejected his brilliant but unconventional doctoral thesis, Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiels (1928; The Origin of German Tragic Drama). Benjamin eventually settled in Paris after leaving Germany in 1933 upon the Nazis' rise to power. He continued to write essays and reviews for literary journals, but upon the fall of France to the Germans in 1940 he fled southward with the hope of escaping to the United States via Spain. Informed by the chief of police at the town of Port-Bou on the Franco-Spanish border that he would be turned over to the Gestapo, Benjamin committed suicide.

      The posthumous publication of Benjamin's prolific output significantly increased his reputation in the later 20th century. The essays containing his philosophical reflections on literature are written in a dense and concentrated style that contains a strong poetic strain. He mixes social criticism and linguistic analysis with historical nostalgia while communicating an underlying sense of pathos and pessimism. The metaphysical quality of his early critical thought gave way to a Marxist inclination in the 1930s. Benjamin's pronounced intellectual independence and originality are evident in the extended essay Goethes Wahlverwandtschaften (1924–25; “Goethe's Elective Affinities”) and in the essays posthumously collected in Illuminationen (1961; Illuminations), including "Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit" (1936; “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”).

Additional Reading
Julian Roberts, Walter Benjamin (1982); Momme Brodersen, Walter Benjamin, trans. from German (1996); Bernd Witte, Walter Benjamin: An Intellectual Biography, trans. from German (1991); Graeme Gilloch, Walter Benjamin: Critical Constellations (2002); Richard J. Lane, Reading Walter Benjamin (2005).

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Universalium. 2010.

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