Beckmann, Max

born Feb. 12, 1884, Leipzig, Ger.
died Dec. 27, 1950, New York, N.Y., U.S.

German Expressionist painter and graphic artist.

After training at the conservative Weimar Academy, in 1903 he moved to Berlin and joined the Berlin Sezession. His experience as a medical orderly in World War I changed his outlook, and his work became full of horrifying imagery, with deliberately repulsive colours and erratic forms. He considered his work to be a combination of brutal realism and social commentary. In 1933 the Nazis declared his art "degenerate" and forced him to resign his professorship at the Städel School of Art in Frankfurt. In 1937 he fled to Amsterdam, and in 1947 he moved to the U.S., where he taught in St. Louis, Mo., and New York City.

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▪ German painter
born February 12, 1884, Leipzig, Germany
died December 27, 1950, New York, New York, U.S.

      German Expressionist painter and printmaker whose works are notable for the boldness and power of their symbolic commentary on the tragic events of the 20th century.

      Beckmann was trained from 1900 to 1903 at the conservative Weimar Academy, where he was influenced by the idealistic classicism of his master, Hans von Marées. In 1904 Beckmann moved to Berlin, where he adopted the lush brushwork of the German Impressionist Lovis Corinth. In 1906 he joined the prestigious Berlin Sezession, and in the same year he met the Norwegian Expressionist painter Edvard Munch (Munch, Edvard), whose morbid, curvilinear compositions influenced Beckmann to develop an Expressionistic style.

      Beckmann served as a medical corpsman in World War I. The shock of exposure to dead and maimed soldiers changed his art, filling it with the sordid, often horrifying imagery that characterizes his mature work. The distorted figures of The Descent from the Cross (1917) and its pendant, Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery (1917), illustrate his new style. Many such paintings depict scenes of lust, cruelty, and pain in settings that have symbolic or allegorical overtones. Angular, harshly delineated figures are tightly grouped in a strangely compressed, flattened space that lends a disquieting tension to the scene. In The Night (1918–19), a scene of nightmarish sadism, the disquieting colours and violent forms convey Beckmann's pessimism over man's bestiality. The portraits, still lifes, and landscapes that he undertook in the 1920s are more conciliatory in mood.

      In 1933 the Nazis declared Beckmann's art “degenerate” and forced him to resign his professorship at the Städel School of Art in Frankfurt. He returned to Berlin, where he completed Departure (1933), the first of the large-scale allegorical triptychs that constitute his most important works.

      Finding the conditions in Germany intolerable, he fled to Amsterdam in 1937. In 1947 he moved to the United States, where he taught for three years at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. Among the most important fruits of his years of exile are such triptychs as The Actors (1942), Carnival (1943), and Blindman's Bluff (1945). Although they retain many of his earlier violent themes, the late triptychs, especially his Argonauts (1950), completed on the day of his death, affirm Beckmann's belief in the ineradicable human spirit. His numerous self-portraits provide a moving record of the artist's spiritual experience.

Additional Reading
Peter Selz, Max Beckmann (1964, reprinted 1980), is an account of Beckmann's life. Friedhelm W. Fischer, Max Beckmann (1973), discusses the artist's symbolism and iconography. Stephan Lackner, Max Beckmann (1977), relates Beckmann's art to contemporary German sociopolitical developments.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Beckmann,Max — Beck·mann (bĕkʹmän), Max. 1884 1950. German artist whose early expressionistic manner yielded to his lasting style, the painting of brutal, often grotesque figurative canvases, such as Night (1919). * * * …   Universalium

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