Bayer AG

German chemical and pharmaceutical company.

Founded in 1863 by Friedrich Bayer (1825–1880), it now operates plants in more than 30 countries. Bayer has originated scores of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and synthetic materials; it was the first developer and marketer of aspirin (1899); of Prontosil, the first sulfa drug (1935); and of polyurethane (1937). Bayer was part of the chemical cartel IG Farben from 1925 to 1945, when the latter was dissolved by the Allies; it was reestablished as an independent company in 1951. Its most noteworthy drug of the 1990s was the antibiotic Cipro. Its headquarters are in Leverkusen.

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▪ German company
      German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in 1863 by Friedrich Bayer (1825–80), who was a chemical salesman, and Johann Friedrich Weskott (1821–76), who owned a dye company. Company headquarters, originally in Barmen (now Wuppertal), have been in Leverkusen, north of Cologne, since 1912.

      The company was originally called Friedr. Bayer et comp. and manufactured dyestuffs; in 1881 it was incorporated as Farbenfabriken vormals Friedr. Bayer & Co. Aspirin, the chance invention of Bayer chemist Felix Hoffmann (1868–1946), was introduced by the company in 1899. In 1912 Carl Duisberg (1861–1935), a chemist, became Bayer's general director and soon began spearheading the movement that would result in 1925 in the consolidation of Germany's chemical industries known as IG Farben; Duisberg was IG Farben's first chairman, and Bayer remained within the cartel until it was dissolved by the Allies in 1945. In 1951 an independent Bayer was reestablished as Farbenfabriken Bayer Aktiengesellschaft; the current name was adopted in 1972. From 1981 to 1999 Bayer held a controlling interest in the Agfa-Gevaert Group (Agfa-Gevaert NV), a German and Belgian producer of photographic equipment and film, magnetic tape, and photocopying and duplicating machines.

      The company's trademark, the Bayer cross, is internationally recognized. Scores of pharmaceuticals, dyes, acetates, synthetic rubbers, plastics, fibres, insecticides, and other chemicals were first developed by Bayer. In addition to being the originator and first marketer of aspirin (1899), Bayer was the first company to mass-produce heroin for use in pain and cough medications (1898). It introduced the first sulfa drug, Prontosil (1935), and developed polyurethane (1937), a base material for synthetic foams, paints, adhesives, fibres, and other goods.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • bayer — [ baje ] v. intr. <conjug. : 1> • XIIe; var. de béer ♦ Vx Rester la bouche ouverte. Mod. Loc. Bayer aux corneilles : perdre son temps en regardant en l air niaisement. ⇒ rêvasser. ⊗ HOM. Bailler; poss. bâiller. ● bayer verbe transitif… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • BAYER (H.) — Herbert BAYER 1900 1985 Herbert Bayer fut le dernier grand survivant du Bauhaus: bien qu’il n’ait passé que quelques années dans cette école prestigieuse, les principes qui y étaient défendus demeurèrent pour lui de véritables lignes de conduite… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Bayer AG — Bayer AG,   einer der führenden Chemiekonzerne in Deutschland, gegründet 1863 als Friedrich Bayer & Company in Barmen (heute zu Wuppertal), seit 1891 Sitz in Wiesdorf (heute Leverkusen). 1925 fusionierte die Bayer AG mit der BASF AG u. a.… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • bayer — BAYER. v. n. (Il se conjugue comme Payer.) Tenir la bouche ouverte en regardant long temps quelque chose. Il ne fait que bayer pendant tout le jour. On dit, Bayer aux corneilles, pour dire, S amuser à regarder en l air niaisement. [b]f♛/b] Il… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • bayer — à la mamelle, Appetere mammam, C est proprement ouvrir la bouche, mais pource que quant plusieurs regardent par grande affection quelque chose ouvrent la bouche, de la est que bayer signifie aucunesfois autant que Regarder. Bayer et tascher à… …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

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