Barlach, Ernst

born Jan. 2, 1870, Wedel, Ger.
died Oct. 24, 1938, Güstrow

German sculptor, graphic artist, and writer.

After studying in Hamburg, Dresden, and Paris, he became the outstanding sculptor of the Expressionist movement, achieving a rough-hewn quality by preferring wood, the material used in late Gothic sculpture. Even when he worked with other, more contemporary materials, he often emulated the raw quality of wood sculpture to achieve a more brutal effect. He achieved fame in the 1920s and '30s with the execution of several war memorials for the Weimar Republic. Barlach also wrote Expressionist plays, which he illustrated with woodcuts and lithographs. His studio at Güstrow was opened posthumously as a museum.

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▪ German sculptor
born January 2, 1870, Wedel, Germany
died October 24, 1938, Güstrow, Germany

      outstanding sculptor of the Expressionist (Expressionism) movement whose style has often been called “modern Gothic.” Barlach also experimented with graphic art and playwriting, and his work in all media is notable for its preoccupation with the sufferings of humanity.

      Barlach studied art in Hamburg, Germany, and later in Dresden and Paris. Influenced early in his career by Jugendstil, Germany's Art Nouveau style, he vacillated between pursuing sculpture and the decorative arts. In 1906 he traveled to Russia, where the strong bodies and expressive faces of the peasants stimulated his commitment to sculpture and to the development of his mature style, which characteristically features bulky, monumental figures in heavy drapery. In works such as The Solitary One (1911), details of the figure are eliminated and the massive forms seem ready to explode with bound energy. Barlach achieved a rough-hewn quality by preferring wood, the material used in late Gothic sculpture (Western sculpture). Even when he worked with other, more-contemporary materials, as in his bronze Death (1925), he often emulated the raw quality of wood sculpture to achieve a more brutal effect.

      Starting about 1910, Barlach began to pursue a career as a dramatist. His most notable dramas, Der tote Tag (1912; “The Dead Day”) and Der Findling (1922; “The Foundling”), combine symbolism and realism to present the tragic futility of existence. He often created woodcuts and lithographs to accompany his written works.

      Barlach achieved great fame in the 1920s and early 1930s, when he executed, among other works, the celebrated war memorials in Magdeburg and Hamburg and the religious figures for the Church of St. Katherine in Lübeck (all in Germany). Although his work was removed from German museums under the Nazi regime and categorized as “ degenerate art,” after World War II his talent was once again recognized. Barlach's former studio in Güstrow, Germany, was made into a museum, and the Ernst Barlach House in Hamburg exhibits a large collection of his sculptures, drawings, and prints.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Barlach, Ernst — (1870 1938)    illustrator, sculptor, and writer; best known for his monuments honoring Germany s war dead. Born to a physician in Wedel (Holstein), he became the master pupil of Robert Diez at the Dresden Academy (1891 1895) before studying at… …   Historical dictionary of Weimar Republik

  • Barlach, Ernst — (1870 1938)    Playwright, sculptor. Barlach is best known in the German theater as a playwright associated with the Expressionist movement in the early 1920s. His plays were often mystical, usually featuring tortured characters with intense… …   Historical dictionary of German Theatre

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