Bardeen, John

born May 23, 1908, Madison, Wis., U.S.
died Jan. 30, 1991, Boston, Mass.

U.S. physicist.

He earned a Ph.D. in mathematical physics from Princeton University. He worked for the U.S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory during World War II, after which he worked for Bell Telephone Laboratories. His work there led to his sharing a 1956 Nobel Prize with William B. Shockley and Walter H. Brattain for the invention of the transistor. In 1972 he again shared a Nobel Prize, this time with Leon Cooper and J. Robert Schrieffer for developing the theory of superconductivity (1957); this theory (called the BCS theory, for Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) is the basis for all later theoretical work in superconductivity. Bardeen was also the author of a theory explaining certain properties of semiconductors.

Bardeen.

Courtesy of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

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▪ American physicist
born May 23, 1908, Madison, Wis., U.S.
died Jan. 30, 1991, Boston, Mass.
 American physicist who was cowinner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in both 1956 and 1972. He shared the 1956 prize with William B. Shockley (Shockley, William B.) and Walter H. Brattain (Brattain, Walter H.) for their joint invention of the transistor. With Leon N. Cooper (Cooper, Leon N.) and John R. Schrieffer (Schrieffer, John Robert) he was awarded the 1972 prize for development of the theory of superconductivity.

      Bardeen earned bachelor's and master's degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Wisconsin (Madison) and obtained his doctorate in 1936 in mathematical physics from Princeton University. A staff member of the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, from 1938 to 1941, he served as principal physicist at the U.S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory in Washington, D.C., during World War II.

      After the war Bardeen joined (1945) the Bell Telephone Laboratories in Murray Hill, N.J., where he, Brattain, and Shockley conducted research on the electron-conducting properties of semiconductors. On Dec. 23, 1947, they unveiled the transistor, which ushered in the electronic revolution. The transistor replaced the larger and bulkier vacuum tube and provided the technology for miniaturizing the electronic switches and other components needed in the construction of computers.

      In the early 1950s Bardeen resumed research he had begun in the 1930s on superconductivity, and his Nobel Prize-winning investigations provided a theoretical explanation of the disappearance of electrical resistance in materials at temperatures close to absolute zero. The BCS theory of superconductivity (from the initials of Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer) was first advanced in 1957 and became the basis for all later theoretical work in superconductivity. Bardeen was also the author of a theory explaining certain properties of semiconductors. He served as a professor of electrical engineering and physics at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, from 1951 to 1975.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Bardeen, John — ► (1908 91) Físico estadounidense. Fue premio Nobel de Física en dos ocasiones: la primera, en 1956, compartido con W. B. Shockley y W. H. Brattain, por sus trabajos relativos al descubrimiento de los transistores; la segunda, en 1972, compartido …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Bardeen , John — (1908–1991) American physicist Bardeen, the son of a professor of anatomy, was born in Madison, Wisconsin, and studied electrical engineering at the University of Wisconsin. He obtained his PhD in mathematical physics at Princeton in 1936.… …   Scientists

  • Bardeen, John — SUBJECT AREA: Electricity, Electronics and information technology [br] b. 23 May 1908 Madison, Wisconsin, USA d. 30 January 1991 Boston, Massachusetts, USA [br] American physicist, the first to win the Nobel Prize for Physics twice. [br] Born the …   Biographical history of technology

  • Bardeen,John — Bar·deen (bär dēnʹ), John. 1908 1991. American physicist. He shared a Nobel Prize in 1956 for the development of the electronic transistor and in 1972 for a theory of superconductivity. * * * …   Universalium

  • Bardeen — John …   Scientists

  • Bardeen — Bardeen, John …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • John R. Schrieffer — John Robert Schrieffer (* 31. Mai 1931 in Oak Park, Illinois) ist ein amerikanischer Physiker. Schrieffer erhielt 1972 zusammen mit Leon N. Cooper und John Bardeen den Nobelpreis für Physik „für ihre gemeinsam entwickelte Theorie des… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bardeen — (John) (1908 1991) physicien américain. P. Nobel en 1956 (travaux sur les semiconducteurs, invention, en 1954, du transistor) et 1972 (travaux sur la supraconductivité) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • John Bardeen — Infobox Scientist name = John Bardeen imagesize = 110px caption = John Bardeen birth date = birth date|1908|5|23|df=y birth place = Madison, Wisconsin, USA death date = death date and age|1991|1|30|1908|5|23 death place = Boston, Massachusetts… …   Wikipedia

  • Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer — Die BCS Theorie ist eine Vielteilchentheorie zur Erklärung der Supraleitung in Metallen. Die BCS Theorie wurde 1957 von John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper und John R. Schrieffer entwickelt. Der Name leitet sich aus den Anfangsbuchstaben der Nachnamen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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