Arkwright, Sir Richard

born Dec. 23, 1732, Preston, Lancashire, Eng.
died Aug. 3, 1792, Cromford, Derbyshire

British textile industrialist and inventor.

His first spinning machine was patented in 1769 (see Lewis Paul). His water frame (so-called because it operated by waterpower) produced a cotton yarn suitable for warp (see weaving), stronger than thread made on the spinning jenny, which proved suitable only for weft. He introduced all-cotton calico in 1773. He opened several factories equipped with machinery for carrying out the phases of textile manufacturing from carding through spinning (see drawing).

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▪ British industrialist and inventor

born Dec. 23, 1732, Preston, Lancashire, Eng.
died Aug. 3, 1792, Cromford, Derbyshire
 textile industrialist and inventor whose use of power-driven machinery and employment of a factory system of production were perhaps more important than his inventions.

      In his early career as a wig-maker, Arkwright traveled widely in Great Britain and began his lifelong practice of self-education. He became interested in spinning machinery at least by 1764, when he began construction of his first machine (patented in 1769). Arkwright's water frame (so-called because it operated by waterpower) produced a cotton yarn suitable for warp. The thread made on James Hargreaves' spinning jenny (invented about 1767) lacked the strength of Arkwright's cotton yarn and was suitable only for weft. With several partners, Arkwright opened factories at Nottingham and Cromford. Within a few years he was operating a number of factories equipped with machinery for carrying out all phases of textile manufacturing from carding to spinning.

      He maintained a dominant position in the textile industry despite the rescinding of his comprehensive patent of 1775. He may have borrowed the ideas of others for his machines, but he was able to build the machines and to make them work successfully. By 1782 Arkwright had a capital of £200,000 and employed 5,000 workers. In 1786 he was knighted.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Arkwright, sir Richard — ► (1732 92) Mecánico británico, inventor de la máquina continua para hilar el algodón, llamada water frame. Creó diversas fábricas. Tuvo conflictos con las patentes de sus inventos. * * * (23 dic. 1732, Preston, Lancashire, Inglaterra–3 ago. 1792 …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Arkwright,Sir Richard — Ark·wright (ärkʹrīt ), Sir Richard. 1732 1792. British inventor and manufacturer who patented a machine for spinning cotton thread (1769) and established cotton mills that were among the first to use machinery on a large scale. * * * …   Universalium

  • Arkwright, Sir Richard — SUBJECT AREA: Textiles [br] b. 23 December 1732 Preston, England d. 3 August 1792 Cromford, England [br] English inventor of a machine for spinning cotton. [br] Arkwright was the youngest of thirteen children and was apprenticed to a barber; when …   Biographical history of technology

  • ARKWRIGHT, SIR RICHARD —    born at Preston, Lancashire; bred to the trade of a barber; took interest in the machinery of cotton spinning; with the help of a clockmaker, invented the spinning frame; was mobbed for threatening thereby to shorten labour and curtail wages,… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

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  • Richard Arkwright — Sir Richard Arkwright Sir Richard Arkwright (* 23. Dezember 1732 in Preston, Lancashire; † 3. August 1792 in Cromford) war ein begüterter Textilindustrieller und Erfinder zahlreicher Patente im Bereich des Spinnens. Er gil …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Richard Arkwright — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Arkwright. Richard Arkwright …   Wikipédia en Français

  • sir — /serr/, n. 1. a respectful or formal term of address used to a man: No, sir. 2. (cap.) the distinctive title of a knight or baronet: Sir Walter Scott. 3. (cap.) a title of respect for some notable personage of ancient times: Sir Pandarus of Troy …   Universalium

  • Richard — /ri shahrd /; Fr. /rddee shannrdd /, n. Maurice /maw rees /; Fr. /moh rddees /, ( the Rocket ), born 1921, Canadian hockey player. /rich euhrd/, n. a male given name. * * * (as used in expressions) Allen Richard Arkwright Sir Richard Attlee… …   Universalium

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