River, northeastern Asia.The Amur proper begins at the confluence of the Shilka and Argun rivers and is 1,755 mi (2,824 km) long. It flows east-southeast along the Russian-Chinese border to Khabarovsk, Siberia, then northeast across Russian territory to empty into the Tatar Strait. Among its tributaries are the Zeya, Bureya, and Ussuri rivers. From the 18th century, Russians have settled to the north of the river and Chinese to the south, a situation which at times has provoked border clashes.
* * *Introductionriver of East Asia. It is the longest river of the Russian Far East, and it ranks behind only the Yangtze (Yangtze River) and Huang Ho (Huang He) (Yellow River) among China's (China) longest rivers. Its headwaters rise in Russia ( Siberia), Mongolia, and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China in the mountains northwest and southeast of the point where their borders meet. The main river flows generally east and southeast, forming much of the border between China's Heilongjiang (Heilungkiang) province and southeastern Siberia. At the Russian city of Khabarovsk it turns northeastward and flows across Russian territory to the Tatar Strait. The Amur's Chinese name, Heilong Jiang, means “Black Dragon River,” and its Mongol name, Kharamuren, means “Black River.”Physical featuresPhysiographyThe Amur and its tributaries drain a basin of about 716,200 square miles (1,855,000 square km). The Amur proper begins at the confluence of the Shilka (Shilka River) and the Argun (Argun River) (Ergun) rivers, 1,755 miles (2,824 km) from its mouth. The Shilka begins more than 340 miles (550 km) farther inland in Siberia at the junction of the Ingoda and Onon rivers, whose ultimate sources lie more than 300 miles (500 km) farther southwest in the Yablonovy Range on the Siberian-Mongolian border. The Argun (Argun River) rises in Inner Mongolia, about 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from its confluence with the Shilka. The Amur's most important tributaries include the Zeya, Bureya, and Amgun rivers, which enter on the left bank from Siberia, the Sungari (Songhua) River (Sungari River) entering on the right from China, and the Ussuri (Wusuli) River (Ussuri River), which flows northward along China's eastern border with Siberia until, just after entering Russia, it joins the Amur at Khabarovsk (see photograph—>). Lake Khanka (Khanka, Lake) (Xingkai), the source of the Ussuri, is the system's largest lake.It is customary to divide the river into three sections: the upper, middle, and lower Amur. The upper Amur begins at the juncture of the Shilka and Argun and ends at the mouth of the Zeya (at the Siberian city of Blagoveshchensk), about 560 miles (900 km) downstream. The middle Amur extends about 600 miles (970 km) from the Zeya east to Khabarovsk. The lower Amur, from Khabarovsk to the mouth, also is about 600 miles (970 km) long.The upper Amur flows through a mountain valley between spurs of the Da Hinggan (Greater Khingan) Range (Da Hinggan Range) to the south, which is covered by thick larch woods, and the pine-clad slopes of the Amarzar Range to the north. Near Albazino, Siberia, the mountains part, and the river enters open plateau country. The terraced slopes there indicate that the Amur cut through this region in the last few million years. Below Yermakovo the river enters a region of rocky precipices made up of complex layers of spontaneously igniting carbonaceous, clayey shales that continually steam and occasionally burst into flames.The middle Amur flows into the Zeya-Bureya Depression. The left bank rises gradually to the plain of the depression, while the right slope—steep and high—borders the Xiao Hinggan (Lesser Khingan) Range (Xiao Hinggan Range) of China. Below the confluence of the Bureya River the plain narrows gradually, and near Pashkovo the river runs past spurs extending from the Bureya Range to the north. Farther on it flows along a narrow gorge through the Xiao Hinggan Range, its depth and speed increasing dramatically.Emerging from this constriction, the Amur runs between low, easily flooded banks into a vast marsh, the surface of which is broken by channels and dotted with lakes and ponds. The riverbed branches often, becoming a classic braided channel. Near Leninskoye, Siberia, the Sungari, the Amur's largest tributary, pours in its yellow, silt-laden waters, and near Khabarovsk it is joined by the Ussuri. With these additions to its waters, the lower Amur overflows widely over the flat, marshy ground of the valley below. The riverbed becomes a labyrinth of branches, channels, offshoots, former riverbeds, islands, sandbanks, and spits. During high-water seasons these sections overflow, and the region becomes an enormous lake. At Khabarovsk the Amur is only 230 miles (370 km) due northwest of the Sea of Japan (Japan, Sea of) (East Sea); but, diverted by the Sikhote-Alin ranges, it runs northeastward for 600 miles (970 km) before emptying into the sea. Near Komsomolsk-na-Amure the plain gradually narrows, and the river flows for 90 miles (145 km) through another restricted channel among mountains into a scenic forest valley. It then enters the Udil Kizinsky hollow with wide, flat, marsh-ridden ground. In the hollow lie two large lakes—the Great Kizi and the Udyl. Near Bogorodskoye the hollow is closed in by mountains, and the river flows out onto a low-lying plain, where the Amgun, the last of its important tributaries, joins the Amur on its left bank. It enters the sea through a wide, bell-shaped estuary, which is about 30 miles (50 km) long.ClimateThe Amur basin's climate is affected by its northern location—between latitudes 45° and 55° N—and by the monsoon (seasonally alternating) winds that shape the climate of all East Asia. In winter polar, continental air masses dominate, bringing dry, frigid weather. Mean January temperatures range from −4 °F (−20 °C) at Harbin on the Sungari River in China to −27 °F (−33 °C) in the northern interior parts of the basin. In summer the predominant subtropical maritime air masses provide mean July temperatures of between 72 °F (22 °C) and 64 °F (18 °C) over the area. The frost-free period ranges from 130 days at Harbin to 90 days farther north and inland. Precipitation in the Amur basin is uneven. It is heaviest in the maritime and southern sections, where it ranges between 24 and 36 inches (600 and 900 mm) annually. In the middle regions the annual rate does not exceed 24 inches (600 mm), and in the western, continental regions it averages 12 to 16 inches (300 to 400 mm). The peak comes in the summer months, when more than half the annual total typically falls.HydrologyThe river is fed principally by the monsoon rains that fall in summer and autumn. The rainwater finds its way quickly into the river, resulting in a period of flooding that extends from May to October. During that period there typically are several periods of high water when the upper Amur is from 16 to 26 feet (5 to 8 metres) above its usual level. In particularly rainy years the high-water level may be as much as 45 feet (14 metres) above the usual level in the narrow upstream channels of the river. Farther downstream, where broad marshlands capture floodwaters, the variations are less; near the mouth the maximum rise is only about 8 feet (2.5 metres). After September the floodwaters begin to abate. The river reaches its lowest level in March and April, before the spring flood, which is fed mainly by the runoff of melted snow and which is much smaller than the monsoon floods that occur in summer and autumn. Those floods often cause serious economic loss.The mean discharge of the Amur at its mouth is about 385,000 cubic feet (10,900 cubic metres) per second. The rate of flow near Komsomolsk-na-Amure is about 350,000 cubic feet (9,900 cubic metres) per second. The rate varies from as low as 5,300 cubic feet to 7,000 cubic feet (150 to 200 cubic metres) per second in winter near Khabarovsk; the highest rate ever recorded was in excess of 1,400,000 cubic feet (40,000 cubic metres) per second in 1897. The mean annual discharge of the Amur is about 95 cubic miles (394 cubic km). Above the confluence with the Sungari, the water in the Amur is relatively clear, but below that point it becomes muddy; the annual sediment discharge averages 57 million tons.Ice forms in the Amur in the second half of October. The upper reaches become icebound at the beginning of November, the lower reaches in the second half of the month. The lower sections open at the end of April and the upper sections in May. Ice jams often occur in the sharp bends of the river, temporarily raising the water level by as much as 50 feet (15 metres). These temporary dams may burst abruptly to cause catastrophic flooding.Plant lifeMuch of the Amur basin lies in the taiga vegetation zone. Larch is the predominant species, particularly in boggy areas, with some pine, spruce, and fir on drier land. In the east are found the Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and the Amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense). In the west the Argun River traverses a region of steppe grassland. In the Da and Xiao Hinggan ranges south of the Amur are found broad-leaved and mixed broad-leaved and conifer forests dominated by Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica), pine, and daurian larch.Animal lifeThe Amur is rich in fish. The lower river has about 100 species of fish and the upper river 60, surpassing even large European rivers such as the Volga and the Danube. About 25 or 30 species are of commercial value. Northern species include the Siberian salmon, the sig, and the burbot; southern forms include the Chinese perch and the white amur. There are about 20 indigenous species of carp and broadhead. A peculiarity of the Amur is the large number of fish species, such as the Siberian salmon, that develop in the sea and therefore escape exposure to the sharp changes in water level that occur in the river during the summer.EconomyFishing remains the chief economic activity on the Amur. The river and its large tributaries are navigable throughout their course when they are ice-free. Some of the lakes also are navigable. The main river ports include Pokrovka, Blagoveshchensk, Leninskoye, Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-na-Amure, and Nikolayevsk-na-Amure in Siberia and Aihui in China. Chinese ports on tributaries of the Amur include Jilemutu on the Argun and Harbin and Jiamusi on the Sungari. The Amur's importance as a waterway diminished during the period of Sino-Soviet tensions (late 1960s–early 1990s) but increased again as the Chinese and Russians began cooperating on projects involving navigation, agricultural reclamation of marshlands, and the development of the basin's considerable hydroelectric potential.HistoryThe Amur River basin originally was populated by hunting and cattle-breeding nomadic people. North of the river these peoples included the Buryat, Sakha (Yakut) (Sakha), Nanai, Nivkh (Gilyak), Udegey, and Orok, with various Mongol and Manchu groups south of the river. From this homeland, certain Manchu tribes conquered China and established the Qing (Manchu) dynasty (China) in China (1644–1911/12), which ruled the entire Amur basin. Although Russian explorers and traders began entering the area north of the Amur during the 17th century, the Treaty of Nerchinsk (Nerchinsk, Treaty of) (1689), confirmed Chinese sovereignty over the entire basin. Despite the treaty, Russians and others from the west settled north of the Amur. Further Russian encroachment into the region occurred after 1850, and China ceded the lands north of the Amur (1858) and east of the Ussuri (1860) to Russia.Early Russian exploration (Earth exploration) of the Amur basin was by the adventurers Vasily Poyarkov, who visited much of the basin and estuary between 1644 and 1646, and Yerofey P. Khabarov (1649–51), for whom Khabarovsk is named. In 1849–55 an expedition led by the Russian naval officer Gennady I. Nevelskoy proved that Sakhalin is an island and that, therefore, the Amur is accessible from the south and not from the north alone, as the Russians previously had supposed. Systematic study of the river system followed this discovery, as the Russians sought to establish transport links with a year-round port on the Pacific Ocean. A tradition of large scientific expeditions that began in tsarist times was continued by the Soviet government, culminating in a thorough exploration in 1952–55.China long resented the Russian acquisitions of 1858 and 1860, which the Chinese considered to be an example of the unequal treaties forced upon a weakened China. The Russians extended their influence over Manchuria to Harbin and southward to the port of Dairen (Dalian). Russian power, however, was eclipsed by the Japanese, whose empire spread into Manchuria in the decades before World War II. After the war, Sino-Soviet tensions in the area simmered until they erupted into armed conflict along the Ussuri in 1969. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, however, Russia and China have made efforts toward greater political and economic cooperation in the region.Aleksandr Pavlovich Muranov Charles E. Greer Lewis OwenAdditional ReadingMaterials in English on the Amur River are not abundant. Early descriptions include a broad historical survey of the basin by E.G. Ravenstein, The Russians on the Amur (1861); and travel accounts by Thomas Witlam Atkinson, Travels in the Regions of the Upper and Lower Amoor (1860, reissued 1996); and Perry McDonough Collins, A Voyage Down the Amoor (1860; later ed. published as Overland Explorations in Siberia, Northern Asia, and the Great Amoor River Country, 1864; also published as Siberian Journey: Down the Amur to the Pacific, 1856–1857, 1962). Vivid illustrated descriptions are presented in such travel books as B.S. Shcherban', Amur: putevoditel' (1960), a tourist guide to the Amur River valley; and B.K. Mashkov, A.B. Bobrova, and V.F. Kovtuna, Amur: liricheskiĭ fotorasskaz . . . (1986), a later pictorial work, with a summary in English. Mark Bassin, Imperial Visions: Nationalist Imagination and Geographical Expansion in the Russian Far East, 1840–1865 (1999), provides a useful historical overview.Lewis Owen
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