Alvarado, Pedro de

born с 1485, Badajoz, Castile
died 1541, in or near Guadalajara, New Spain

Spanish soldier and colonial administrator.

In 1519 he accompanied the army led by Hernán Cortés that conquered Mexico. In 1522 he became the first mayor of Tenochtitlán (Mexico City). In 1523 he conquered the native peoples of Guatemala and founded the city (modern Antigua) that became the first capital of the Guatemala region, which later included much of Central America. He was governor of Guatemala in 1527–31. In 1539 he began an exploration of central Mexico, but died while quelling an Indian uprising.

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▪ Spanish conquistador
born c. 1485, Badajoz, Castile [Spain]
died 1541, in or near Guadalajara, New Spain [now in Mexico]

      a conqueror of Mexico and Central America for Spain.

      Alvarado went to Santo Domingo in 1510 and in 1518 commanded one of Juan de Grijalba (Grijalba, Juan de)'s ships sent from Cuba to explore the Yucatán Peninsula. In February 1519 he accompanied the army, led from Cuba by Hernán Cortés (Cortés, Hernán, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca), that was to conquer Mexico. Alvarado was first placed in charge of Tenochtitlán (later Mexico City) in 1520 when Cortes left the city to meet a rival Spanish force on the coast. When Aztecs (Aztec) gathered in the square to celebrate the festival of Toxcatl, Alvarado feared an uprising and ordered his men to strike first. About 200 Aztec chiefs were massacred by Alvarado's men, who were in turn besieged in their quarters by an angry mob. Upon his return, Cortes learned of the attack and uprising and quickly planned a nighttime retreat from Tenochtitlán. On the night of June 30, 1520, known as noche triste (“sad night”), Cortes and his men attempted to leave the city quietly but were spotted by the Aztecs. Fierce fighting erupted, and Alvarado, who was leading the rear guard, narrowly escaped, thanks largely to a spectacular leap across a canal. The Spanish recaptured Tenochtitlán in 1521, and in 1522 Alvarado became the city's first alcalde (mayor or principal magistrate).

      In 1523 Alvarado conquered the Quiché and Cakchiquel of Guatemala and in 1524 founded Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala (Ciudad Vieja; (Antigua Guatemala) present Antigua (Antigua Guatemala), Guat.). This town became the first capital of the captaincy general of Guatemala, later including much of Central America, of which Alvarado was governor (1527–31).

      In 1534 Alvarado led an unlicensed expedition to Quito, but in 1535 he sold his ships and munitions to Diego de Almagro (Almagro, Diego de), one of Francisco Pizarro (Pizarro, Francisco)'s captains. He then returned to Guatemala and in 1537 to Spain, where he was confirmed as governor of Guatemala for seven years and was given a charter to explore Mexico. He arrived in Honduras in 1539 and died while attempting to quell an Indian uprising in central Mexico.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Alvarado, Pedro de — • Accompanied Grijalva on his exploration of Yucatan and the Mexican coast in 1518, and was the chief officer of Cortez during the conquest of Mexico Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Alvarado,Pedro de — Al·va·ra·do (ăl və räʹdō, äl vä räʹthō), Pedro de. 1485 1541. Spanish general and colonial administrator who took part in the conquest of Mexico and became governor of Guatemala (1530). * * * …   Universalium

  • Alvarado, Pedro de — ► (1485 1541) Conquistador español. En 1510 pasó a Santo Domingo y de allí a Cuba. Causó la insurrección que dio lugar a la célebre retirada de la Noche triste. * * * ( 1485, Badajoz, Castilla–1541, en Guadalajara o sus alrededores, Nueva España) …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Pedro de Alvarado — (* um 1486 in Badajoz; † 4. Juni 1541 in Guadalajara, Mexiko) war ein spanischer Conquistador. Er war der Sohn des Kommandanten von Lobon. Inhaltsverzeichnis …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Pedro de Alvarado —     Pedro de Alvarado     † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pedro de Alvarado     Of the companions of Cortez, and among the superior officers of his army, Pedro de Alvarado became the most famous in history. A native of Badajóz, son of the commander of… …   Catholic encyclopedia

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