Altman, Sidney

born May 7, 1939, Montreal, Que., Can.

Canadian-born U.S. molecular biologist.

He studied at MIT and the University of Colorado and has taught at Yale University since 1971. Working independently, Altman and Thomas Cech discovered that RNA, previously believed to be simply a passive carrier of genetic codes between different parts of the living cell, could also initiate and carry out (i.e., catalyze) some reactions, opening up new fields of research and biotechnology. The two shared a 1989 Nobel Prize.

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▪ American scientist
born May 7, 1939, Montreal, Que., Can.
 
 Canadian-American molecular biologist who, with Thomas R. Cech (Cech, Thomas Robert), received the 1989 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for their discoveries concerning RNA, or ribonucleic acid.

      Altman attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (B.S., 1960, in physics) and the University of Colorado (Ph.D., 1967, in biophysics). He was a molecular biology fellow at Harvard University (1967–69) and at the University of Cambridge (1969–70) before joining the biology faculty at Yale University in 1971. He became a full professor at Yale in 1980, was the department chairman from 1983 to 1985, and served as dean of the undergraduate Yale College from 1985 to 1989. He took U.S. citizenship in 1984 but concurrently retained his Canadian citizenship.

      Working independently, Altman and Cech discovered a new role for RNA. The old belief was that enzymatic activity—the triggering and acceleration of vital chemical reactions within living cells—was the exclusive domain of protein molecules. Altman's and Cech's revolutionary discovery was that RNA, traditionally thought to be simply a passive carrier of genetic codes between different parts of the living cell, could also take on active enzymatic functions. This new knowledge opened up new fields of scientific research and biotechnology and caused scientists to rethink old theories of how cells function.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • ALTMAN, SIDNEY — (1939– ), research biologist and educator. Altman, born in Montreal, Canada, received his doctorate in biophysics from the University of Colorado in 1967. He joined the department of biology at Yale University in 1971, becoming a professor in… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Altman,Sidney — Altman, Sidney. Born 1939. Canadian born American biologist who shared a 1989 Nobel Prize in chemistry for discoveries concerning the catalytic properties of RNA. * * * …   Universalium

  • Altman , Sidney — (1939– American chemist Born in Montreal, Canada, Altman was educated at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he obtained his PhD in 1967. He moved to Yale in 1971, becoming professor of biology in 1980 and a naturalized US citizen in 1984 …   Scientists

  • Altman, Sidney — (n. 7 may. 1939, Montreal, Quebec, Canadá). Biólogo molecular estadounidense de origen canadiense. Estudió en el MIT y en la Universidad de Colorado, y enseña en la Universidad de Yale desde 1971. Trabajando por separado, Altman y Thomas Cech… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Altman — Sidney …   Scientists

  • Sidney — Sidney, Algernon Sidney, Philip (Sydney) ► C. del SE de Australia, cap. del estado de Nueva Gales del Sur, abierta al océano Pacífico, primera ciudad del país; 3 538 970 h. Dos grandes puentes unen la c. con la orilla N de la bahía. Puerto… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Sidney Altman — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Altman. Sidney Altman (1939 à Montréal ) est un biochimiste américain d origine canadienne. Il est colauréat avec Thomas Robert Cech du prix Nobel de chimie de 1989 pour « la découverte des propriétés… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sidney — /sid nee/, n. 1. Sir Philip, 1554 86, English poet, writer, statesman, and soldier. 2. a city in N Ohio. 17,657. 3. a male or female given name: a family name taken from a French placename, Saint Denis. Also, Sydney (for defs. 1, 3). * * * (as… …   Universalium

  • Sidney Altman — Nacimiento 7 de mayo de 1933 Montreal, Canadá Nacionalidad Canadiense Campo …   Wikipedia Español

  • Altman — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Benjamin Altman (1840–1913), US amerikanischer Kaufmann und Kunstsammler Dennis Altman (* 1943), australischer Politikwissenschaftler Ernst Altman (* 19. Jahrhundert; † 1916), deutscher Schachkomponist… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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