{ʽ}Abbāsid dynasty

(750–1258) The second of the two great Sunnite dynasties of the Islamic Caliphate.

The ʽAbbāsids took their name from an uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, al-ʽAbbās, whose descendants formed one of several groups agitating for change under the Umayyad dynasty. The Umayyad enforcement of a brand of Arab chauvinism, wherein non-Arab Muslims were relegated to a lower status, led to a revolution in which the ʽAbbāsids claimed the Caliphate and enforced a more universal community of believers. This was symbolized by their movement of the caliphal capital from Damascus to Baghdad, an area closer to the geographic centre of the empire and nearer the Persian hinterland. Under their rule, Islamic culture flourished, new heights in philosophy and science were attained, and the period was widely seen as the "golden age" of the Islamic world. During that time, however, the Caliphate's authority slowly began to erode as regional power centres developed throughout the empire. Although central authority was intermittently reasserted by strong-willed caliphs, by the 13th century ʽAbbāsid authority was largely spiritual. The last ʽAbbāsid caliph was executed by Mongol invaders, but a shadow Caliphate (of dubious authenticity) continued into the early 20th century. See also Abū Muslim.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • Abbāsid Dynastyʿ —       second of the two great dynasties of the Muslim Empire of the Caliphate. It overthrew the Umayyad caliphate in AD 750 and reigned as the ʿAbbāsid caliphate until destroyed by the Mongol invasion in 1258.       The name is derived from that… …   Universalium

  • Abbasid Caliphate — For the Caliphate of Córdoba (Al Andalus) dynasty see Abbadids; for the southwest Arabia Islamic sect, see Abādites. Abbasid Caliphate الخلافة العباسية al khilāfah al ‘abbāsīyyah …   Wikipedia

  • dynasty — dynastic /duy nas tik/; Brit. also /di nas tik/, dynastical, adj. dynastically, adv. /duy neuh stee/; Brit. also /din euh stee/, n., pl. dynasties. 1. a sequence of rulers from the same family, stock, or group: the Ming dynasty …   Universalium

  • Dynasty — A dynasty is a succession of rulers who belong to the same family for generations. A dynasty is also often called a house , e.g. the House of Saud or House of Habsburg . In the histories of Europe, much of Asia and some of Africa, ruling and… …   Wikipedia

  • Abbasid — [ə basɪd, abəsɪd] noun a member of a dynasty of caliphs who ruled in Baghdad 750–1258. Origin named after Muhammad s uncle Abbas, founder of the dynasty …   English new terms dictionary

  • abbasid — n. & adj. n. a member of a dynasty of caliphs ruling in Baghdad 750 1258. adj. of this dynasty. Etymology: Abbas, Muhammad s uncle d. 652 …   Useful english dictionary

  • Abbasid — noun Date: 1788 a member of a dynasty of caliphs (750 1258) ruling the Islamic empire especially from their capital Baghdad and claiming descent from Abbas the uncle of Muhammad …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Abbasid — /euh bas id, ab euh sid/, n. a member of a dynasty of caliphs ruling at Baghdad, A.D. 750 1258, governing most of the Islamic world and claiming descent from Abbas, uncle of Muhammad. Also, Abbassid, Abbasside /euh bas uyd, ab euh suyd /. [ < Ar… …   Universalium

  • Abbasid — n. member of a dynasty of caliphs who ruled an Islamic empire from Baghdad as from 750 to 1258 …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Abbasid — Ab•bas•id [[t]əˈbæs ɪd, ˈæb ə sɪd[/t]] n. anh why ear a member of a dynasty of caliphs ruling most of the Islamic world from Baghdad, a.d. 750–1258, and claiming descent from Abbas, uncle of Muhammad …   From formal English to slang

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