International Organizations and Groups


International Organizations and Groups
Note: The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) has dissolved and ceases to exist. None of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, including Serbia and Montenegro, have been permitted to participate solely on the basis of the membership of the former Yugoslavia in the United Nations General Assembly and Economic and Social Council and their subsidiary bodies and in various United Nations specialized agencies. The United Nations, however, permits the seat and nameplate of the SFRY to remain, permits the SFRY mission to continue to function, and continues to fly the flag of the former Yugoslavia. For a variety of reasons, a number of other organizations have not yet taken action with regard to the membership of the former Yugoslavia. The World Factbook therefore continues to list Yugoslavia under international organizations where the SFRY seat remains or where no action has yet been taken. advanced developing countries another term for those less developed countries (LDCs) with particularly rapid industrial development; see newly industrializing economies (NIEs) African, Caribbean, and Pacific Countries (ACP) address Avenue Georges Henri 451, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium telephone [32] (2) 733 96 00 FAX [32] (2) 735 55 73 established 1 April 1976 aim to manage their preferential economic and aid relationship with the EU members (70) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe African Development Bank (AfDB) note also known as Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD) address 01 BP 1387, Abidjan 01, Cote dIvoire telephone [225] 20 44 44 FAX [225] 21 77 53, 20 49 01, 20 49 09 established 4 August 1963 aim to promote economic and social development regional members (51) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe nonregional members (26) Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, Yugoslavia Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique (ACCT) see Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT) Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation (ACCT) note acronym from Agence de Cooperation Culturelle et Technique address 13 quai Andre-Citroen, F-75015 Paris, France telephone [33] (1) 44 37 33 00 FAX [33] (1) 45 79 14 98 established 21 March 1970 aim to promote cultural and technical cooperation among French-speaking countries members (37) Belgium, Benin, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Dominica, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Guinea, Haiti, Laos, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Monaco, Niger, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Togo, Tunisia, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Zaire associate members (5) Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Morocco, Saint Lucia participating governments (2) New Brunswick (Canada), Quebec (Canada) Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) note acronym from Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL) address Temistocles 78, Col Polanco, CP 011560, Mexico City 5 DF, Mexico telephone [52] (5) 280 4923, 280 5064 FAX [52] (5) 280 2965 established 14 February 1967 aim to encourage the peaceful uses of atomic energy and prohibit nuclear weapons members (28) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela Andean Group (AG) address co JUNAC, Paseo de la Republica 3895, Casilla 18-1177, Lima 27, Peru telephone [51] (14) 414212 FAX [51] (14) 420911 established 26 May 1969 effective 16 October 1969 aim to promote harmonious development through economic integration members (5) Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela associate member (1) Panama observers (26) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Costa Rica, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Paraguay, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US, Uruguay, Yugoslavia Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA) note also known as Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA) address Sayed Abdel Rahman El Mahdi Avenue, P.O. Box 2640, Khartoum, Sudan telephone [249] (11) 73646, 73498, 73709 FAX [249] (11) 70600 established 18 February 1974 effective 16 September 1974 aim to promote economic development members (17 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Palestine Liberation Organization; note - these are all the members of the Arab League except for Comoros, Djibouti, Somalia, and Yemen Arab Cooperation Council (ACC) established 16 February 1989 aim to promote economic cooperation and integration, possibly leading to an Arab Common Market members (4) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Yemen Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD) address P.O. Box 21923, Safat 13080, Kuwait telephone [965] 2451580, 2451588 FAX [965] 2416758 established 16 May 1968 aim to promote economic and social development members (20 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt (suspended from 1979 to 1988), Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization Arab League (AL) note also known as League of Arab States (LAS) address Midan Attahrir, Tahrir Square, P.O. Box 11642, Cairo, Egypt telephone [20] (2) 750 511 FAX [20] (2) 740 331 established 22 March 1945 aim to promote economic, social, political, and military cooperation members (21 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) address 27 avenue Okba Agdal, Rabat, Morocco established 17 February 1989 aim to promote cooperation and integration among the Arab states of northern Africa members (5) Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia Arab Monetary Fund (AMF) address P.O. Box 2818, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates telephone [971] (2) 215000 FAX [971] (2) 326454 established 27 April 1976 effective 2 February 1977 aim to promote Arab cooperation, development, and integration in monetary and economic affairs members (19 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) address Ministry of Trade and Industry, Public Relations, 8 Shenton Way No 48-01, Treasury Building, Singapore, Singapore established 7 November 1989 aim to promote trade and investment in the Pacific basin members (18) all ASEAN members (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand) plus Australia, Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, NZ, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, US observers (3) Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, South Pacific Forum Asian Development Bank (AsDB) address 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong, METRO Manila, Philippines telephone [63] (2) 711 3851 FAX [63] (2) 741 7961, 631 6816 established 19 December 1966 aim to promote regional economic cooperation regional members (40) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, Fiji, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa nonregional members (16) Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI) see Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) address Jalan Sisingamangaraja 70A, Kebayoran Baru, P.O. Box 2072, Jakarta 12110, Indonesia telephone [62] (21) 71 22 72, 71 19 88 FAX [62] (21) 739 82 34 established 9 August 1967 aim to encourage regional economic, social, and cultural cooperation among the non-Communist countries of Southeast Asia members (6) Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand observers (3) Laos, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam Australia Group established 1984 aim to consult on and coordinate export controls related to chemical and biological weapons members (28) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US observer (1) Singapore Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty (ANZUS) address c/o Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Bag 8, Queen Victoria Terrace, Canberra ACT 2600, Australia telephone [61] (62) 61 91 11 FAX [61] (62) 61 21 51 established 1 September 1951 effective 29 April 1952 aim to implement a trilateral mutual security agreement, although the US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986 members (3) Australia, NZ, US Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico (BCIE) see Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE) Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) see Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) Bank for International Settlements (BIS) address Centralbahnplatz 2, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland telephone [41] (61) 280 80 80 FAX [41] (61) 280 91 00 established 20 January 1930 effective 17 March 1930 aim to promote cooperation among central banks in international financial settlements members (33) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US, Yugoslavia Banque Africaine de Developpement (BAD) see African Development Bank (AfDB) Banque Arabe de Developpement Economique en Afrique (BADEA) see Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA) Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale (BDEAC) see Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC) Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD) see West African Development Bank (WADB) Benelux Economic Union (Benelux) note acronym from Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg address Rue de la Regence 39, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium telephone [32] (2) 519 38 11 FAX [32] (2) 513 42 06 established 3 February 1958 effective 1 November 1960 aim to develop closer economic cooperation and integration members (3) Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands Big Seven note membership is the same as the Group of 7 established NA 1975 aim to discuss and coordinate major economic policies members (7) Big Six (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK) plus the US Big Six note not to be confused with the Group of 6 established NA 1967 aim to foster economic cooperation members (6) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone (BSEC) established 25 June 1992 aim to enhance regional stability through economic cooperation members (11) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine observer (1) Poland Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) address CARICOM, P.O. Box 10827, Bank of Guyana Building, 3rd floor, Avenue of the Republic, Georgetown, Guyana telephone [592] (2) 69281 through 69289 FAX [592] (2) 66091, 67816, 57341 established 4 July 1973 effective 1 August 1973 aim to promote economic integration and development, especially among the less developed countries members (14) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago associate members (2) British Virgin Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands observers (9) Anguilla, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Venezuela Caribbean Development Bank (CDB) address P.O. Box 408, Wildey, St. Michael, Barbados telephone [1] (809) 431 1600 FAX [1] (809) 426 7269 established 18 October 1969 effective 26 January 1970 aim to promote economic development and cooperation regional members (20) Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Venezuela nonregional members (5) Canada, France, Germany, Italy, UK Cartagena Group see Group of 11 Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC) note acronym from Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale address BP 969, Bangui, Central African Republic telephone [236] 61 09 22, 61 45 77 FAX [236] 61 21 35 established 8 December 1964 effective 1 January 1966 aim to promote the establishment of a Central African Common Market members (6) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC) note acronym from Banque de Developpement des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale address BDEAC, Place du Gouvernement, BP 1177, Brazzaville, Congo telephone [242] 83 01 26, 83 01 49, 81 02 12, 81 02 21 FAX [242] 83 02 66 established 3 December 1975 aim to provide loans for economic development members (9) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Germany, Kuwait Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE) note acronym from Banco Centroamericano de Integracion Economico address Apartado Postal 772, Tegucigalpa DC, Honduras telephone [504] 372230 through 372239, 371184 through 371188 FAX [504] 370793 established 13 December 1960 aim to promote economic integration and development members (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua nonregional members (4) Argentina, Mexico, Taiwan, Venezuela Central American Common Market (CACM) address 4A Avda 10-25, Zona 14, Apdo Postal 1237, 01901 Guatemala City, Guatemala telephone [502] (2) 682151 FAX [502] (2) 681071 established 13 December 1960 effective 3 June 1961 aim to promote establishment of a Central American Common Market members (5) Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua Central European Initiative (CEI) note evolved from the Hexagonal Group address Chairman of the National Coordinators, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Bem rakpart 47, Budapest II, Hungary established 27 July 1991 aim to form an economic and political cooperation group for the region between the Adriatic and the Baltic Seas members (10) Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia associate members (4) Bulgaria, Belarus, Romania, Ukraine centrally planned economies a term applied mainly to the traditionally Communist states that looked to the former USSR for leadership; most are now evolving toward more democratic and market-oriented systems; also known formerly as the Second World or as the Communist countries; through the 1980s, this group included Albania, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, GDR, Hungary, North Korea, Laos, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yugoslavia Colombo Plan (CP) address Colombo Plan Bureau, P.O. Box 596, 12 Melbourne Avenue, Colombo 4, Sri Lanka telephone [94] (1) 581813, 581853, 581754 FAX [94] (1) 580721 established 1 July 1951 aim to promote economic and social development in Asia and the Pacific members (24) Afghanistan, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, US Commission for Social Development note formerly Social Commission address c/o ECOSOC/DPCSD, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 2320 FAX [1] (212) 963 5935 established 21 June 1946 as the Social Commission, renamed 29 July 1966 aim to deal, as part of the Economic and Social Council, with social development programs of UN members (32) selected on a rotating basis from all regions Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice established 6 February 1992 aim to provide guidance, as part of the Economic and Social Council, on crime prevention and criminal justice members (40) selected on a rotating basis from all regions Commission on Human Rights address c/o United Nationas Office, Centre for Human Rights, Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 917 12 34, 907 12 34 FAX [41] (22) 733 32 46 established 18 February 1946 aim to assist, as part of the Economic and Social Council, with human rights programs of UN members (53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions Commission on Human Settlements (Habitat) address c/o HABITAT, P.O. Box 30030, Nairobi, Kenya telephone [254] (2) 621234 FAX [254] (2) 226473, 226479 established 12 October 1978 aim to assist, as part of the Economic and Social Council, in solving human settlement problems of UN members (58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions Commission on Narcotic Drugs address c/o International Drug Control Programme, Treaty Implementation and Legal Affairs Division, P.O. Box 500, A-1400 Vienna, Austria telephone [43] (1) 211 310 FAX [43] (1) 230 7002 established 16 February 1946 aim Economic and Social Council organization dealing with illicit drugs programs of UN members (53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions with emphasis on producing and processing countries Commission on Science and Technology for Development established 30 April 1992 aim to promote international cooperation, as part of the Economic and Social Council, in the field of science and technology members (53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions Commission on the Status of Women address c/o Economic and Social Council, Affairs Division, Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, Room S-2963, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA established 21 June 1946 aim to deal, as part of the Economic and Social Council, with women's rights goals of UN members (45) selected on a rotating basis from all regions Commission on Sustainable Development established 12 February 1993 aim to monitor, as part of the Economic and Social Council, implementation of agreements reached at the UN Conference on Environment and Development members (53) selected on a rotating basis from all regions Commonwealth (C) address c/o Commonwealth Secretariat, Marlborough House, Pall Mall, London SW1Y5HX, UK telephone [44] (71) 839 3411 FAX [44] (71) 930 0827 established 31 December 1931 aim to foster multinational cooperation and assistance, as a voluntary association that evolved from the British Empire members (49) Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus, Dominica, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Namibia, NZ, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, UK, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Zambia, Zimbabwe special members (2) Nauru, Tuvalu Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) address Kirov Street 17, 220000 Minsk, Belarus telephone [7] (172) 293434, 293517 FAX [7] (172) 261894, 261944 established 8 December 1991 effective 21 December 1991 aim to coordinate intercommonwealth relations and to provide a mechanism for the orderly dissolution of the USSR members (12) Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO) see West African Economic Community (CEAO) Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale (CEEAC) see Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC) Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs (CEPGL) see Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL) Communist countries traditionally the Marxist-Leninist states with authoritarian governments and command economies based on the Soviet model; most of the original and the successor states are no longer Communist; see centrally planned economies Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) see Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire (CERN) see European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Contadora Group (CG) was established 5 January 1983 (on the Panamanian island of Contadora) to reduce tensions and conflicts in Central America; has evolved into the Rio Group (RG); members included Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Venezuela Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf see Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM) established in 1949 to control the export of strategic products and technical data from member countries to proscribed destinations; members were Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, UK, US; was abolished 31 March 1994; COCOM members are working on a new organization with expanded membership which focuses on nonproliferation export controls as opposed to East-West control of advanced technology Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA) note also known as CMEA or Comecon established 25 January 1949 to promote the development of socialist economies and was abolished 1 January 1991; members included Afghanistan (observer), Albania (had not participated since 1961 break with USSR), Angola (observer), Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Ethiopia (observer), GDR, Hungary, Laos (observer), Mongolia, Mozambique (observer), Nicaragua (observer), Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam, Yemen (observer), Yugoslavia (associate) Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU) address BP 925100, Amman, Jordan telephone [962] (6) 66 43 26, 66 43 27, 66 43 28 FAX [962] (6) 66 33 43 established 3 June 1957 effective 30 May 1964 aim to promote economic integration among Arab nations members (11 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization Council of Europe (CE) address Palais de lEurope, F-67075 Strasbourg CEDEX, France telephone [33] 88 41 20 00 FAX [33] 88 41 27 81, 88 41 27 82 established 5 May 1949 effective 3 August 1949 aim to promote increased unity and quality of life in Europe members (32) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK guests (9) Albania, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Latvia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine observer (1) Israel Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS) established 5 March 1992 aim to promote cooperation among the Baltic Sea states in the areas of aid to new democratic institutions, economic development, humanitarian aid, energy and the environment, cultural programs and education, and transportation and communication members (10) Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden Council of the Entente (Entente) address BP 3734, Abidjan 01, Cote dIvoire telephone [225] 33 10 01, 33 28 35 FAX [225] 33 11 49 established 29 May 1959 aim to promote economic, social, and political coordination members (5) Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Niger, Togo Customs Cooperation Council (CCC) address Rue de lIndustrie 26-38, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium telephone [32] (2) 508 42 11 FAX [32] (2) 508 42 40 established 15 December 1950 aim to promote international cooperation in customs matters members (136) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe developed countries (DCs) the top group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs); includes the market-oriented economies of the mainly democratic nations in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Bermuda, Israel, South Africa, and the European ministates; also known as the First World, high-income countries, the North, industrial countries; generally have a per capita GDP in excess of $10,000 although four OECD countries and South Africa have figures well under $10,000 and two of the excluded OPEC countries have figures of more than $10,000; the 35 DCs are: Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bermuda, Canada, Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Monaco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US developing countries an imprecise term for the less developed countries with growing economies; see less developed countries (LDCs) East African Development Bank (EADB) address 4 Nile Avenue, P.O. Box 7128, Kampala, Uganda telephone [256] (41) 230021, 230825 FAX [256] (41) 259763 established 6 June 1967 effective 1 December 1967 aim to promote economic development members (3) Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) address United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand telephone [66] (2) 2829161 through 2829200, 2829381 through 2829389 FAX [66] (2) 2811743 established 28 March 1947 as Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) aim to carryout the commitment of the Economic and Social Council of the UN to promote economic development members (49) Afghanistan, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, China, Fiji, France, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa associate members (10) American Samoa, Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Guam, Hong Kong, Macau, New Caledonia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) address (temporary) P.O. Box 927115, Amman, Jordan telephone [962] (6) 694351 FAX [962] (6) 694981, 694982 established 9 August 1973 as Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA) aim to promote economic development as a regional commission for the UN's Economic and Social Council members (12 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) address United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 758 2718 established 26 June 1945 effective 24 October 1945 aim to coordinate the economic and social work of the UN; includes five regional commissions (see Economic Commission for Africa, Economic Commission for Europe, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia) and 10 functional commissions (see Commission for Social Development, Commission on Human Rights, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Commission on the Status of Women, Population Commission, Statistical Commission, Commission on Science and Technology for Development, Commission on Sustainable Development, Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, and Commission on Transnational Corporations) members (54) selected on a rotating basis from all regions Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) address P.O. Box 3001-3005, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia telephone [251] (1) 51 72 00 FAX [251] (1) 51 44 16 established 29 April 1958 aim to promote economic development as a regional commission of the UN's Economic and Social Council members (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe associate members (2) France, UK Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) see Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) address Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 917 1234, 907 2893 FAX [41] (22) 917 0036 established 28 March 1947 aim to promote economic development as a regional commission of the UN's Economic and Social Council members (54) Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) see Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) address Edificio Naciones Unidas, Avenida Dag Hammarskjold, Casilla 179 D, Santiago, Chile telephone [56] (2) 2102000 FAX [56] (2) 2080252, 2081946 established 25 February 1948 as Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) aim to promote economic development as a regional commission of the UN's Economic and Social Council members (41) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Italy, Jamaica, Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Spain, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela associate members (6) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA) see Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC) note acronym from Communaute Economique des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale address CEEAC, BP 2112, Libreville, Gabon telephone [241] 73 35 47, 73 35 48, 73 36 77 established 18 October 1983 aim to promote regional economic cooperation and establish a Central African Common Market members (10) Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Zaire observer (1) Angola Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL) note acronym from Communaute Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs address B.O. Box 58, Gisenyi, Rwanda telephone [250] 40228 FAX [250] 40785 established 26 September 1976 aim to promote regional economic cooperation and integration members (3) Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) address 6 King George V Road, PMB 12745, Lagos, Nigeria telephone [234] (1) 636839, 636841, 636064, 630398 FAX [234] (1) 636822 established 28 May 1975 aim to promote regional economic cooperation members (16) Benin, Burkina, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) address 5 Hejab Avenue, Bd Keshavarz, P.O. Box 14155-6176, Teheran, Iran Islamic Republic telephone [98] (21) 658614, 656152, 658045 FAX [98] (21) 658046 established NA 1985 aim to promote regional cooperation in trade, transportation, communications, tourism, cultural affairs, and economic development members (10) Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan associate member (1) "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) address One Exchange Square, London EC2A 2EH, UK telephone [44] (71) 338 6000 FAX [44] (71) 338 6100 established 15 April 1991 aim to facilitate the transition of seven centrally planned economies in Europe (Bulgaria, former Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, former USSR, and former Yugoslavia) to market economies by committing 60% of its loans to privatization members (59) Albania, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, European Union (EU), European Investment Bank (EIB), Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan; note - includes all 25 members of the OECD; also includes the EU as a single entity European Community (or European Communities, EC) was established 8 April 1965 to integrate the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the European Coal and Steel Community (ESC), the European Economic Community (EEC or Common Market), and to establish a completely integrated common market and an eventual federation of Europe; merged into the European Union (EU) on 7 February 1992; member states at the time of merger were Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK European Free Trade Association (EFTA) address 9-11 rue de Varembe, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 749 11 11 FAX [41] (22) 733 92 91 established 4 January 1960 effective 3 May 1960 aim to promote expansion of free trade members (7) Austria, Finland, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland European Investment Bank (EIB) address Bd Konrad Adenauer 100, L-2950 Luxembourg, Luxembourg telephone [352] 43791 FAX [352] 437704 established 25 March 1957 effective 1 January 1958 aim to promote economic development of the EU members (12) Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) note acronym retained from the predecessor organization Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire address CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 767 61 11 FAX [41] (22) 767 65 55 established 1 July 1953 effective 29 September 1954 aim to foster nuclear research for peaceful purposes only members (19) Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK observers (6) EC, Israel, Russia, Turkey, United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Yugoslavia European Space Agency (ESA) address 8-10 rue Mario Nikis, F-75738 Paris CEDEX 15, France telephone [33] (1) 42 73 76 54 FAX [33] (1) 42 73 75 60 established 31 July 1973 effective 1 May 1975 aim to promote peaceful cooperation in space research and technology members (13) Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK associate member (1) Finland cooperating state (1) Canada European Union (EU) note evolved from the European Community (EC) address c/o European Commission, Rue de la Loi 200, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium telephone [32] (2) 299 11 11 FAX [32] (2) 295 01 38 through 295 01 40 established 7 February 1992 effective 1 November 1993 aim to coordinate policy among the 15 members in three fields: economics, building on the European Economic Community's (EEC) efforts to establish a common market and eventually a common currency; defense, within the concept of a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP); and justice and home affairs, including immigration, drugs, terrorism, and improved living and working conditions members (15) Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, UK First World another term for countries with advanced, industrialized economies; this term is fading from use; see developed countries (DCs) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) address Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, I-00100 Rome, Italy telephone [39] (6) 52251 FAX [39] (6) 5225 3152, 5225 5155, 578 2610 established 16 October 1945 aim to raise living standards and increase availability of agricultural products, as a UN specialized agency members (170) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe associate member (1) Puerto Rico Former USSR /Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE) the middle group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs); these countries are in political and economic transition and may well be grouped differently in the near future; this group of 27 countries consists of Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan Four Dragons the four small Asian less developed countries (LDCs) that have experienced unusually rapid economic growth; also known as the Four Tigers; this group includes Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan Four Tigers another term for the Four Dragons; see Four Dragons Franc Zone (FZ) address Direction Generale des Service Etrangers (Service de la Zone Franc), Banque de France, 39 rue Crois-des-Petits-Champs, BP 140-01, Paris Cedex 01, France telephone [33] (1) 42 92 31 26 FAX [33] (1) 42 92 39 88 established 20 December 1945 aim to form a monetary union among countries whose currencies are linked to the French franc members (15) Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, France, Gabon, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo; note - France includes metropolitan France, the four overseas departments of France (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion), the two territorial collectivities of France (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon), and the three overseas territories of France (French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Wallis and Futuna) Front Line States (FLS) established to achieve black majority rule in South Africa; members included Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) note was subsumed by the World Trade Organization (WTrO) on 1 January 1995 address rue de Lausanne 154, CH-1211 Geneva 21, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 739 51 11 FAX [41] (22) 731 42 06 established 30 October 1947 effective 1 January 1948 aim to promote the expansion of international trade on a nondiscriminatory basis members (123) Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe Group of 2 (G-2) established informal term that came into use about 1986 aim to facilitate bilateral economic cooperation between the two most powerful economic giants members (2) Japan, US Group of 3 (G-3) established NA October 1990 aim mechanism for policy coordination members (3) Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela Group of 5 (G-5) established 22 September 1985 aim to coordinate the economic policies of the five major non-Communist economic powers members (5) France, Germany, Japan, UK, US Group of 6 (G-6) note also known as Groupe des Six Sur le Desarmement not to be confused with the Big Six established 22 May 1984 aim to achieve nuclear disarmament members (6) Argentina, Greece, India, Mexico, Sweden, Tanzania Group of 7 (G-7) note membership is the same as the Big Seven established 22 September 1985 aim to facilitate economic cooperation among the seven major non- Communist economic powers members (7) Group of 5 (France, Germany, Japan, UK, US) plus Canada and Italy Group of 8 (G-8) established NA October 1975 aim to facilitate economic cooperation among the developed countries (DCs) that participated in the Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC), held in several sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 June 1977 members (8) Australia, Canada, EU (as one member), Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, US Group of 9 (G-9) established NA aim to discuss matters of mutual interest on an informal basis members (9) Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Hungary, Romania, Sweden, Yugoslavia Group of 10 (G-10) note also known as the Paris Club; includes the wealthiest members of the IMF who provide most of the money to be loaned and act as the informal steering committee; name persists in spite of the addition of Switzerland on NA April 1984 address c/o IMF Office in Europe, 64-66 ave dIena, F-75116 Paris, France telephone [33] (1) 40 69 30 80 FAX [33] (1) 47 23 40 89 established NA October 1962 aim to coordinate credit policy members (11) Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US nonstate participants (4) BIS, EU, IMF, OECD Group of 11 (G-11) note also known as the Cartagena Group established 22 June 1984, in Cartagena, Colombia aim to provide a forum for largest debtor nations in Latin America members (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela Group of 15 (G-15) note byproduct of the Non-Aligned Movement address Technical Support Facility, Ch du Champ dAncier 17, Case postale 326, CH-1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 798 42 10 FAX [41] (22) 798 38 49 established September 1989 aim to promote economic cooperation among developing nations; to act as the main political organ for the Non-Aligned Movement members (15) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Senegal, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe Group of 19 (G-19) established NA October 1975 aim to represent the interests of the less developed countries (LDCs) that participated in the Conference on International Economic Cooperation (CIEC) held in several sessions between NA December 1975 and 3 June 1977 members (19) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Cameroon, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia Group of 24 (G-24) address c/o European Commission, DGI, G-24 Coordination Unit, Rue de la Science 29, B-1049 Brussels, Belgium telephone [32] (2) 299 22 44 FAX [32] (2) 299 06 02 established NA January 1972 aim to promote the interests of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America within the IMF members (24) Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Iran, Lebanon, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire Group of 30 (G-30) address 1990 M Street NW, Suite 450, Washington, DC 20036, USA telephone [1] (202) 331 2472 established NA 1979 aim to discuss and propose solutions to the world's economic problems members (30) informal group of 30 leading international bankers, economists, financial experts, and businessmen organized by Johannes Witteveen (former managing director of the IMF) Group of 33 (G-33) established NA 1987 aim to promote solutions to international economic problems members (33) leading economists from 13 countries Group of 77 (G-77) established NA October 1967 aim to promote economic cooperation among developing countries; name persists in spite of increased membership members (127 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UAE, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) note also known as the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf address P.O. Box 7431, Riyadh 11462 Saudi Arabia telephone [966] (1) 4827777 FAX [966] (1) 4829089 established 25 May 1981 aim to promote regional cooperation in economic, social, political, and military affairs members (6) Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE Habitat see Commission on Human Settlements Hexagonal Group see Central European Initiative (CEI) high-income countries another term for the industrialized countries with high per capita GDPs; see developed countries (DCs) industrial countries another term for the developed countries; see developed countries (DCs) Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) note also known as Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) address 1300 New York Avenue NW, Washington, DC 10577, USA telephone [1] (202) 632 1000 FAX [1] (202) 789 2835 established 8 April 1959 effective 30 December 1959 aim to promote economic and social development in Latin America members (46) Argentina, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) address BP 2653, Djibouti, Djibouti telephone [253] 354050, 352880 FAX [253] 356994 established 15-16 January 1986 aim to promote cooperation on drought-related matters members (7) Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) address Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria telephone [43] (1) 2360 2045 FAX [43] (1) 234564 established 26 October 1956 effective 29 July 1957 aim to promote peaceful uses of atomic energy members (121) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe International Bank for Economic Cooperation (IBEC) was established on 22 October 1963 to promote economic cooperation and development; members were Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam; now it is a Russian bank with a new charter International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) note also known as the World Bank address 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA telephone [1] (202) 477 1234 FAX [1] (202) 477 6391 established 22 July 1944 effective 27 December 1945 aim to provide economic development loans; a UN specialized agency members (178) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) address 38 Cours Albert 1st, F-75008 Paris, France telephone [33] (1) 49 53 28 75 FAX [33] (1) 49 53 29 42 established NA 1919 aim to promote free trade and private enterprise and to represent business interests at national and international levels members (59 national councils) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Greece, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Kuwait, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) address 1000 Sherbrooke Street West, Suite 327, Montreal PQ H3A 2R2, Canada telephone [1] (514) 285 8219 FAX [1] (514) 288 4772 established 7 December 1944 effective 4 April 1947 aim to promote international cooperation in civil aviation; a UN specialized agency members (183) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) address ICRC, 19 av de la Paix, CH-1202 Geneva, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 734 60 01 FAX [41] (22) 733 82 80 established NA 1863 aim to provide humanitarian aid in wartime members (25 individuals) all Swiss nationals International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) address International Trade Union House, Bd Emile Jacqmain 155, B-1210 Brussels, Belgium telephone [32] (2) 224 02 11 FAX [32] (2) 218 84 15, 219 75 03 established NA December 1949 aim to promote the trade union movement members (164 national organizations in the following 118 areas) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Basque Country, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Curacao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Estonia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Holy See, Honduras, Hong Kong, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Montserrat, Morocco, Netherlands, New Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela, Western Samoa, Zambia, Zimbabwe International Court of Justice (ICJ) note also known as the World Court address Peace Palace, NL-2517 KJ The Hague, Netherlands telephone [31] (70) 302 23 23 FAX [31] (70) 364 99 28 established 26 June 1945 effective 24 October 1945 aim primary judicial organ of the UN members (15 judges) elected by the UN General Assembly and Security Council to represent all principal legal systems International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL) address BP 6041, F-69411 Lyon CEDEX 06, France telephone [33] 71 44 70 00 FAX [33] 72 44 71 63 established 13 June 1956 aim to promote international cooperation among police authorities in fighting crime members (176) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe subbureaus (13) American Samoa, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Guam, Hong Kong, Macau, Montserrat, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, Turks and Caicos Islands International Development Association (IDA) address 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA telephone [1] (202) 477 12 34 established 26 January 1960 effective 24 September 1960 aim UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate that provides economic loans for low income countries members (157) Part I (24 more economically advanced countries) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, UAE, UK, US Part II (133 less developed nations) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe International Energy Agency (IEA) address 2 rue Andre Pascal, F-75775 Paris CEDEX 16, France telephone [33] (1) 45 24 82 00 FAX [33] (1) 45 24 99 88 established 15 November 1974 aim to promote cooperation on energy matters, especially emergency oil sharing and relations between oil consumers and oil producers; established by the OECD members (23) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS) note formerly known as League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS) established 5 May 1919 aim to provide humanitarian aid in peacetime members (151) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe associate members (13) Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Comoros, Cyprus, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kiribati, Namibia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Seychelles, Suriname, Tuvalu, Vanuatu International Finance Corporation (IFC) address 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA telephone [1] (202) 477 1234 FAX [1] (202) 477 6391 established 25 May 1955 effective 20 July 1956 aim to support private enterprise in international economic development; a UN specialized agency and IBRD affiliate members (161) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) address Via del Serafico 107, I-00142 Rome, Italy telephone [39] (6) 54591 FAX [39] (6) 5043463 established NA November 1974 aim to promote agricultural development; a UN specialized agency members (157) Category I (21 industrialized aid contributors) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US Category II (12 petroleum-exporting aid contributors) Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela Category III (124 aid recipients) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea- Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Israel, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe International Investment Bank (IIB) established on 7 July 1970; to promote economic development; members were Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Vietnam; now it is a Russian bank with a new charter International Labor Organization (ILO) address International Labor Office, 4 route des Morillons, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 799 61 11 FAX [41] (22) 798 86 85 established 11 April 1919 (affiliated with the UN 14 December 1946) aim UN specialized agency concerned with world labor issues members (171) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe International Maritime Organization (IMO) note name changed from Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) on 22 May 1982 address 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR, UK telephone [44] (71) 735 7611 FAX [44] (71) 587 3210 established 17 March 1958 aim to deal with international maritime affairs; a UN specialized agency members (149) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire associate members (2) Hong Kong, Macau International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) address 99 City Road, London EC1Y 1AX, UK telephone [44] (71) 728 1000 FAX [44] (71) 728 1044 established 3 September 1976 effective 26 July 1979 aim to provide worldwide communications for maritime shipping and other applications members (75) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kuwait, Liberia, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mozambique, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Yugoslavia International Monetary Fund (IMF) address 700 19th Street NW, Washington, DC 20431, USA telephone [1] (202) 623 7000 FAX [1] (202) 623 4661, 623 7491, 623 4662 established 22 July 1944 effective 27 December 1945 aim to promote world monetary stability and economic development; a UN specialized agency members (179) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe International Olympic Committee (IOC) note there are 194 National Olympic Committees of which 185 are recognized by the International Olympic Committee address Chateau de Vidy, CH-1007 Lausanne, Switzerland telephone [41] (21) 621 61 11 FAX [41] (21) 621 62 16 established 23 June 1894 aim to promote the Olympic ideals and administer the Olympic games: 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States (20 July-4 August); 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan (date NA); 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia (date NA) National Olympic Committees (193 and the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, American Samoa, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazahkstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization - International Organization for Migration (IOM) note established as Provisional Intergovernmental Committee for the Movement of Migrants from Europe; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) on 15 November 1952; renamed Intergovernmental Committee for Migration (ICM) in November 1980; current name adopted 14 November 1989 address 17 route des Morillons, CP 71, CH-1211 Geneva 19, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 717 91 11 FAX [41] (22) 798 61 50 established 5 December 1951 aim to facilitate orderly international emigration and immigration members (52) Albania, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Uganda, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia observers (44) Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cape Verde, Czech Republic, Federation of Ethnic Communities' Council of Australia Inc., Georgia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Holy See, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan International Friendship and Welfare Foundation, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Mexico, Moldova, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, NZ, Niwano Peace Foundation, Partnership with the Children of the Third World, Presiding Bishop's Fund for World Relief/Episcopal Church, Refugee Council of Australia, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Tajikistan, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe International Organization for Standardization (ISO) address CP 56, 1 rue de Varembe, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 749 01 11 FAX [41] (22) 733 34 30 established NA February 1947 aim to promote the development of international standards members (76 national standards organizations) Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Libya, Malaysia, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe correspondent members (19) Bahrain, Barbados, Brunei, Estonia, Hong Kong, Jordan, Kuwait, Lithuania, Malawi, Malta, Mauritius, Nepal, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Qatar, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE subscriber members (4) Antigua and Barbuda, Burundi, Grenada, Saint Lucia International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM) address CICR, 19 Av de la Paix, CH-1202 Geneva, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 734 60 01 FAX [41] (22) 733 20 57 established NA 1928 aim to promote worldwide humanitarian aid through the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in wartime, and International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS; formerly League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies or LORCS) in peacetime National Societies (161 countries) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gambia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAR, UK, US, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe International Telecommunication Union (ITU) address Place des Nations, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 730 51 11 FAX [41] (22) 733 72 56 established 9 December 1932 effective 1 January 1934 affiliated with the UN 15 November 1947 aim to deal with world telecommunications issues; UN specialized agency members (184) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) address INTELSAT, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008-3098, USA telephone [1] (202) 944 6800 FAX [1] (202) 944 7860 established 20 August 1971 effective 12 February 1973 aim to develop and operate a global commercial telecommunications satellite system members (134) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Monaco, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe nonsignatory users (50) Albania, Antigua and Barbuda, Belarus, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Comoros, Cook Islands, Cuba, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Kiribati, North Korea, Laos, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Lithuania, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Moldova, Mongolia, Nauru, Niue, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Tajikistan, Tonga, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Vanuatu, Western Samoa Islamic Development Bank (IDB) address P.O. Box 5925, Jeddah 21432, Saudi Arabia telephone [966] (2) 6361400 FAX [966] (2) 6366871 established 15 December 1973 aim to promote Islamic economic aid and social development members (48 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization Latin American Economic System (LAES) note also known as Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA) address SELA, Avda Francisco de Miranda, Torre Europa, piso 4, Chacaito, Apartado de Correos 17035, Caracas 1010-A, Venezuela telephone [58] (2) 905 5111 FAX [58] (2) 951 6953, 951 7246 established 17 October 1975 aim to promote economic and social development through regional cooperation members (27) Argentina, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela Latin American Integration Association (LAIA) note also known as Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI) address Calle Cebollati 1461, Casilla de Correo 577, 11000 Montevideo, Uruguay telephone [598] (2) 40 11 21, 49 59 15 FAX [598] (2) 49 06 49 established 12 August 1980 effective 18 March 1981 aim to promote freer regional trade members (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela observers (16) Commission of the European Communities, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Inter-American Development Bank, Italy, Nicaragua, Organization of American States, Panama, Portugal, Spain, United Nations Development Program, United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean League of Arab States (LAS) see Arab League (AL) League of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (LORCS) see International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS) least developed countries (LLDCs) that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) initially identified by the UN General Assembly in 1971 as having no significant economic growth, per capita GDPs normally less than $1,000, and low literacy rates; also known as the undeveloped countries. The 42 LLDCs are: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kiribati, Laos, Lesotho, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Western Samoa, Yemen less developed countries (LDCs) the bottom group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs); mainly countries and dependent areas with low levels of output, living standards, and technology; per capita GDPs are generally below $5,000 and often less than $1,500; however, the group also includes a number of countries with high per capita incomes, areas of advanced technology, and rapid rates of growth; includes the advanced developing countries, developing countries, Four Dragons (Four Tigers), least developed countries (LLDCs), low-income countries, middle-income countries, newly industrializing economies (NIEs), the South, Third World, underdeveloped countries, undeveloped countries; the 172 LDCs are: Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Gaza Strip, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jersey, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Isle of Man, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Oman, Palau, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, UAE, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara, Western Samoa, Yemen, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe low-income countries another term for those less developed countries with below-average per capita GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs) London Suppliers Group see Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (MERCOSUR) see Southern Cone Common Market middle-income countries another term for those less developed countries with above-average per capita GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs) Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) established April 1987 aim to arrest missile proliferation by controlling the export of key missile technologies and equipment members (25) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US Near Abroad the 14 non-Russian successor states of the USSR, in which 25 million ethnic Russians live and in which Moscow has expressed a strong national security interest newly industrializing countries (NICs) former term for the newly industrializing economies; see newly industrializing economies (NIEs) newly industrializing economies (NIEs) that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) that has experienced particularly rapid industrialization of their economies; formerly known as the newly industrializing countries (NICs); also known as advanced developing countries; usually includes the Four Dragons (Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan), and Brazil Nonaligned Movement (NAM) address c/o Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Jalan Taman Pejambon 6, Jakarta PUSAT, Indonesia established 1-6 September 1961 aim to establish political and military cooperation apart from the traditional East or West blocs members (110 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, UAE, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization observers (19) Afro-Asian Solidarity Organization, Antigua and Barbuda, Arab League, Armenia, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Croatia, Dominica, El Salvador, Kanaka Socialist National Liberation Front (New Caledonia), Mexico, Mongolia, Organization of African Unity, Organization of the Islamic Conference, Papua New Guinea, Socialist Party of Puerto Rico, UN, Uruguay guests (21) Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Dominican Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland Nordic Council (NC) address Tyrgatan 7, Box 19506, S-104 32 Stockholm, Sweden telephone [46] (8) 453 47 00 FAX [46] (8) 411 75 36 established 16 March 1952 effective 12 February 1953 aim to promote regional economic, cultural, and environmental cooperation members (5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland (including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden observers the Sami (Lapp) local parliaments of Finland, Norway, and Sweden Nordic Investment Bank (NIB) address Fabiansgatan 34, PB 249 SF-00171 Helsinki, Finland telephone [358] (0) 18001 FAX [358] (0) 1800309 established 4 December 1975 effective 1 June 1976 aim to promote economic cooperation and development members (5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland (including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden North a popular term for the rich industrialized countries generally located in the northern portion of the Northern Hemisphere; the counterpart of the South; see developed countries (DCs) North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) note an extension of NATO address c/o NATO, B-1110 Brussels, Belgium telephone [32] (2) 728 41 11 FAX [32] (2) 728 45 79 established 8 November 1991 effective 20 December 1991 aim to discuss cooperation on mutual political and security issues members (38) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan observer (1) Finland North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) address B-110 Brussels, Belgium telephone [32] (2) 728 41 11 FAX [32] (2) 728 45 79 established 17 September 1949 aim to promote mutual defense and cooperation members (16) Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, UK, US Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) address Le Seine St. Germain, 12 bd des Iles, F-92130 Issy-les- Moulineaux, France telephone [33] (1) 45 24 10 10 FAX [33] (1) 45 24 11 10 established NA 1958 aim to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; associated with OECD members (23) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) note also known as the London Suppliers Group address c/o IAEA, Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria telephone [43] (1) 2360 2045 FAX [43] (1) 234564 established 1974 aim to establish guidelines for exports of technical information, processing equipment for uranium enrichment and nuclear materials to countries of proliferation concern and regions of conflict and instability members (28) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US observers (2) Argentina, European Commission Organismo para la Proscripcion de las Armas Nucleares en la America Latina y el Caribe (OPANAL) see Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) address 2 rue Andre Pascal, F-75775 Paris CEDEX 16, France telephone [33] (1) 45 24 82 00 FAX [33] (1) 45 24 85 00, 45 24 81 76 established 14 December 1960 effective 30 September 1961 aim to promote economic cooperation and development members (25) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US special member (1) EU Organization of African Unity (OAU) address P. O. Box 3243, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia telephone [251] (1) 517700 FAX [251] (1) 512622 established 25 May 1963 aim to promote unity and cooperation among African states members (53) Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe Organization of American States (OAS) address corner of 17th Street and Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006, USA telephone [1] (202) 458 3000 FAX [1] (202) 458 3967 established 30 April 1948 effective 13 December 1951 aim to promote regional peace and security as well as economic and social development members (35) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba (excluded from formal participation since 1962), Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, US, Uruguay, Venezuela observers (31) Algeria, Angola, Austria, Belgium, Central American Parliament, Commission of the European Communities, Cyprus, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Morocco, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) address POB 20501, Safat 13066, Kuwait telephone [965] 5340713 FAX [965] 5340694 established 9 January 1968 aim to promote cooperation in the petroleum industry members (10) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) address P.O. Box 179, The Morne, Castries, St. Lucia telephone [1] (809) 452 2537 FAX [1] (809) 453 1628 established 18 June 1981 effective 4 July 1981 aim to promote political, economic, and defense cooperation members (7) Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines associate member (1) British Virgin Islands Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) address Obere Donaustrasse 93, A-1020 Vienna, Austria telephone [43] (1) 21 11 20 FAX [43] (1) 26 43 20 established 14 September 1960 aim to coordinate petroleum policies members (12) Algeria, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) address Kilo 6, Mecca Road, P.O. Box 178, Jeddah 21411, Saudi Arabia telephone [966] (2) 680-0800 FAX [966] (2) 687-3568 established 22-25 September 1969 aim to promote Islamic solidarity in economic, social, cultural, and political affairs members (48 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization observers (3) Kazakhstan, Mozambique, "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) note formerly the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) address Thunovska 12, Mala Strana, 110 00 Prague 1, Czech Republic telephone [422] (2) 24311069 FAX [422] (2) 24310629 established 1 January 1995 aim to discuss issues of mutual concern and to review implementation of the Helsinki Agreement members (53) Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia (suspended) observer (1) The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Paris Club see Group of 10 Partnership for Peace (PFP) established 10-11 January 1994 aim to expand and intensify political and military cooperation throughout Europe, increase stability, diminish threats to peace, and build relationships by promoting the spirit of practical cooperation and commitment to democratic principles that underpin NATO; program under the auspices of NATO members (24) Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) address Peace Palace, Carnegieplein 2, NL-2517 KJ The Hague, Netherlands telephone [31] (70) 346 96 80 FAX [31] (70) 356 13 38 established 29 July 1899 aim to facilitate the settlement of international disputes members (80) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Luxembourg, Malta, Mauritius, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zaire, Zimbabwe Population Commission address c/o ECOSOC, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 754 1234 established 3 October 1946 aim to deal with population matters of importance to the UN, as part of Economic and Social Council organization members (27) selected on a rotating basis from all regions Rio Group (RG) note formerly known as Grupo de los Ocho, established in December 1986 established NA 1988 aim to consult on regional Latin American issues members (11) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela; note - Panama was expelled in 1988 Second World another term for the traditionally Marxist-Leninist states of the USSR and Eastern Europe, with authoritarian governments and command economies based on the Soviet model; the term is fading from use; see centrally planned economies Social Commission see Commission for Social Development socialist countries in general, countries in which the government owns and plans the use of the major factors of production; note - the term is sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for Communist countries South a popular term for the poorer, less industrialized countries generally located south of the developed countries; the counterpart of the North; see less developed countries (LDCs) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) address P.O. Box 4222, Kathmandu, Nepal telephone [977] (1) 221785, 221787, 221794 FAX [977] (1) 227033 established 8 December 1985 aim to promote economic, social, and cultural cooperation members (7) Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka South Pacific Commission (SPC) address Anse Vata, BP D5 Noumea CEDEX, New Caledonia telephone [687] 26 20 00 FAX [687] 26 38 18 established 6 February 1947 effective 29 July 1948 aim to promote regional cooperation in economic and social matters members (27) American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, NZ, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, UK, US, Vanuatu, Wallis and Futuna, Western Samoa South Pacific Forum (SPF) address c/o forum Secretariat, Ratu Sukuna Road GPO Box 856, Suva, Fiji telephone [679] 312 600, 303 106 FAX [679] 302 204 established 5 August 1971 aim to promote regional cooperation in political matters members (15) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa observer (1) Palau South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement (SPARTECA) address (see South Pacific Forum) established NA 1981 aim to redress unequal trade relationship of Australia and New Zealand with small island economies in Pacific region members (15) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa Southern African Customs Union (SACU) address Director General, Trade and Industry, Private Bag X84, Pretoria 0001, South Africa established 11 December 1969 aim to promote free trade and cooperation in customs matters members (9) Bophuthatswana, Botswana, Ciskei, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Transkei, Venda Southern African Development Community (SADC) note evolved from the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) address Private Bag 008, Gaborone, Botswana telephone [267] (31) 51863, 51864, 51865 FAX [267] (31) 372848 established 17 August 1992 aim to promote regional economic development and integration members (11) Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR) address c/o Cancilleria de la Republica de Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina established 26 March 1991 aim to increase regional economic cooperation members (4) Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay Statistical Commission address c/o ECOSOC, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 758 2718 established 21 June 1946 aim to deal with development and standardization of national statistics of interest to the UN, as part of the Economic and Social Council organization members (24) selected on a rotating basis from all regions Third World another term for the less developed countries; the term is fading from use; see less developed countries (LDCs) underdeveloped countries refers to those less developed countries with the potential for above- average economic growth; see less developed countries (LDCs) undeveloped countries refers to those extremely poor less developed countries (LDCs) with little prospect for economic growth; see least developed countries (LLDCs) Union Douaniere et Economique de l 'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC) see Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC) United Nations (UN) address United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 758 2718 established 26 June 1945 effective 24 October 1945 aim to maintain international peace and security and to promote cooperation involving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems members (184 excluding Yugoslavia) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe; note - all UN members are represented in the General Assembly observers (2 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Holy See, Switzerland, Palestine Liberation Organization United Nations Angola Verification Mission (UNAVEM II) note successor to original UNAVEM address c/o United Nations, UNAVEM II, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 758 2718 established 20 December 1988 aim to verify the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola; established by the UN Security Council members (16) Argentina, Brazil, Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Jordan, Malaysia, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Slovakia, Sweden, Zimbabwe United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) established 5 October 1993 aim to monitor ceasefire agreement, to support and provide safe conditions for displaced persons; established by the UN Security Council members (17) Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, Congo, Egypt, Fiji, Ghana, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Poland, Russia, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia, Uruguay, Zimbabwe United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) note acronym retained from the predecessor organization UN International Children's Emergency Fund address UNICEF House, Three United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 326 7000 established 11 December 1946 aim to help establish child health and welfare services members (41) selected on a rotating basis from all regions United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) address Palais des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 917 12 34, 907 12 34 FAX [41] (22) 907 00 57 established 30 December 1964 aim to promote international trade members (187) all UN members plus Holy See, Switzerland, Tonga United Nations Development Program (UNDP) address One United National Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 906 5788, 906 500 FAX [1] (212) 906 5365 established 22 November 1965 aim to provide technical assistance to stimulate economic and social development members (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) address c/o UNDOF, P.O. Box 5368, Damascus, Syrian AR established 31 May 1974 aim to observe the 1973 Arab-Israeli ceasefire; established by the UN Security Council members (4) Austria, Canada, Finland, Poland United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) address 7 place de Fontenoy, F-75700 Paris, France telephone [33] (1) 45 68 10 00 FAX [33] (1) 45 67 16 90 established 16 November 1945 effective 4 November 1946 aim to promote cooperation in education, science, and culture members (182) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe associate members (3) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Netherlands Antilles United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) address One United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 906 5000 FAX [1] (212) 826 2057 established 15 December 1972 aim to promote international cooperation on all environmental matters members (58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions United Nations Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) address c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 963 4879 established 4 March 1964 aim to serve as a peacekeeping force between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus; established by the UN Security Council members (8) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, UK United Nations General Assembly address see United Nations established 26 June 1945 effective 24 October 1945 aim to function as the primary deliberative organ of the UN members (185) all UN members are represented in the General Assembly United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) address Vienna International Center, P.O. Box 300, A-1400 Vienna, Austria telephone [43] (1) 211 310 FAX [43] (1) 23 21 56 established 17 November 1966 effective 1 January 1967 aim UN specialized agency that promotes industrial development especially among the members members (166) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) established 11 December 1963 aim to help the UN become more effective through training and research members (Board of Trustees) - (24) Argentina, Belgium, Canada, China, Cote d'Ivoire, France, Germany, India, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Libya, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Pakistan, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Uganda, UK, US, Yugoslavia United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) address c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 963 4879 established 19 March 1978 aim to confirm the withdrawal of Israeli forces, restore peace, and reestablish Lebanese authority in southern Lebanon; established by the UN Security Council members (9) Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, Norway, Poland United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) address c/o UN Peace Keeping Mission, Office for Special Political Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 963 4879 established 9 April 1991 aim to observe and monitor the demilitarized zone established between Iraq and Kuwait; established by the UN Security Council members (33) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, China, Denmark, Fiji, Finland, France, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) address c/o OUSGSPA, Room 3853, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 4457 FAX [1] (212) 758 2718 established 13 August 1948 aim to observe the 1949 India-Pakistan ceasefire; established by the UN Security Council members (8) Belgium, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Uruguay United Nations Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) established 23 September 1993 aim to assist in implementing the agreement to transfer power back into the civilian government; established by the UN Security Council members (14) Algeria, Argentina, Austria, Canada, France, Indonesia, Madagascar, Russia, Senegal, Spain, Switzerland, Tunisia, US, Venezuela United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) established 22 September 1993 aim to assist in the implementation of the peace agreement; established by the UN Security Council members (13) Austria, Bangladesh, China, Czech Republic, Egypt, Guinea- Bissau, India, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Slovakia, Uruguay United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) address c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 963 4879 established 29 April 1991 aim to supervise the referendum in Western Sahara; established by the UN Security Council members (27) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Honduras, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Switzerland, Togo, Tunisia, US, Venezuela United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL) address c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 963 4879 established 20 May 1991 aim to verify ceasefire arrangements and to monitor the maintenance of public order pending the organization of a new National Civil Police; established by the UN Security Council members (14) Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, France, Guyana, Ireland, Italy, Mexico, Spain, Sweden, Venezuela United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG) address c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 963 4879 established 1993 for a period of six months aim to verify compliance with the cease-fire agreement reached 27 July 1993 and investigate reports of violations of that agreement; established by the UN Security Council members (7) Bangladesh, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland United Nations Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda (UNOMUR) address c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 963 4879 established 1993 for six months aim to monitor the Uganda/Rwanda border to verify that no military assistance reaches Rwanda across the border; established by the UN Security Council members (8) Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Hungary, Netherlands, Senegal, Slovakia, Zimbabwe United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) address Case postale 2500, Depot, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 739 81 11 FAX [41] (22) 731 95 46 established 3 December 1949 effective 1 January 1951 aim to ensure the humanitarian treatment of refugees and find permanent solutions to refugee problems members (47) Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Lesotho, Madagascar, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela, Yugoslavia, Zaire United Nations Operation in Mozambique (UNOMOZ) note supposed to shut down 31 January 1995 address c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 963 4879 established 16 December 1992 aim to supervise the ceasefire; established by the UN Security Council members (27) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, China, Czech Republic, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, US, Uruguay, Zambia United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM II) note UN peacekeepers left Somalia on 1 March 1995; some UN personnel remain in Somalia engaged in humanitarian work address c/o UN Peace Keeping Missions, Office for Special Political Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 963 4879 established 24 April 1992 aim to facilitate an immediate cessation of hostilities, to maintain a ceasefire in order to promote a political settlement, and to provide urgent humanitarian assistance; established by the UN Security Council members (14) Australia, Bangladesh, Botswana, Canada, Egypt, India, Ireland, Malaysia, Nepal, NZ, Nigeria, Pakistan, Romania, Zimbabwe United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) note acronym retained from predecessor organization UN Fund for Population Activities address 220 E. 42nd Street, 19th Floor, Room DN-1901, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 297 5000 FAX [1] (212) 557 6416 established NA July 1967 aim to assist both developed and developing countries to deal with their population problems members (52) selected on a rotating basis from all regions United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) address c/o UN Peace Keeping Mission, Office for Special Political Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 963 4879 established 28 February 1992 aim to create conditions for peace and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the "Yugoslav" crisis; established by the UN Security Council members (35) Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, US, Venezuela United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) address Vienna International Center, P. O. Box 700, A-1400 Vienna, Austria telephone [43] (1) 211 31, ext. 4530 FAX [43] (1) 230 7487 established 8 December 1949 aim to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees members (10) Belgium, Egypt, France, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, UK, US United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) established 1 July 1964 aim to conduct research into the problems of economic development during different phases of economic growth members no country members, but a Board of Directors consisting of a chairman appointed by the UN secretary general and 10 individual members United Nations Secretariat address see United Nations established 26 June 1945 effective 24 October 1945 aim to serve as the primary administrative organ of the UN; a Secretary General is appointed for a five-year term by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council members the UN secretary general and staff United Nations Security Council address c/o United Nations, New York, NY 10017, USA telephone [1] (212) 963 1234 FAX [1] (212) 758 2718 established 26 June 1945 effective 24 October 1945 aim to maintain international peace and security permanent members (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US nonpermanent members (10) elected for two-year terms by the UN General Assembly; Argentina (1994-95), Brazil (1993-94), Czech Republic (1994-95), Djibouti (1993-94), NZ (1993-94), Nigeria (1994-95), Oman (1994-95), Pakistan (1993-94), Rwanda (1994-95), Spain (1993-94) United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) established by the UN Security Council on 28 February 1992 to contribute to the restoration and maintenance of peace and to the holding of free elections; disbanded sometime after the UN-supervised election in May 1993; members were Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brunei, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Egypt, Fiji, France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Tunisia, UK, US, Uruguay United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) address Government House, P.O. Box 490, Jerusalem, Israel telephone [972] (2) 734 223 established NA May 1948 aim to supervise the 1948 Arab-Israeli ceasefire and subsequently extended to work in the Sinai, Lebanon, Jordan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan; initially established by the UN Security Council members (19) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, US United Nations Trusteeship Council established on 26 June 1945, effective on 24 October 1945, to supervise the administration of the 11 UN trust territories; members were China, France, Russia, UK, US; its mandate ended on 1 October 1994 when the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau) became the Republic of Palau, a self-governing territory in free association with the US United Nations University (UNU) established 6 December 1973 aim to conduct research in development, welfare, and human survival and to train scholars members (associated institutes) (32) Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, France, Ghana, Guatemala, Hungary, Iceland, India, Japan, Kenya, South Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Philippines, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, US, Venezuela Universal Postal Union (UPU) address Bureau International de lUPU, Weltpoststrasse 4, CH-3000 Berne 15, Switzerland telephone [41] (31) 350 31 11 FAX [41] (31) 350 31 10 established 9 October 1874, affiliated with the UN 15 November 1947 effective 1 July 1948 aim to promote international postal cooperation; a UN specialized agency members (189) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Overseas Territories of the UK, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe Warsaw Pact (WP) established 14 May 1955 to promote mutual defense; members met 1 July 1991 to dissolve the alliance; member states at the time of dissolution were Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the USSR; earlier members included East Germany and Albania West African Development Bank (WADB) note also known as Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD) address BOAD, BP 1172, 68 av de la liberation, Lome, Togo telephone [228] 21 59 06, 21 42 44, 21 01 13 FAX [228] 21 52 67, 21 72 69 established 14 November 1973 aim to promote regional economic development and integration members (7) Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo West African Economic Community (CEAO) note acronym from Communaute Economique de lAfrique de lOuest established on 3 June 1972 to promote regional economic development; its members were Benin, Burkina, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal; it was disbanded in 1994 Western European Union (WEU) address Rue de la Regence 4, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium telephone [32] (2) 500 44 11 FAX [32] (2) 511 35 19 established 23 October 1954 effective 6 May 1955 aim to provide mutual defense and to move toward political unification members (10) Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK associate members (3) Iceland, Norway, Turkey associate partners (9) Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia observers (2) Denmark, Ireland World Bank see International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) World Bank Group includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), and International Finance Corporation (IFC) World Confederation of Labor (WCL) address Rue de Treves 33, B-1040 Brussels, Belgium telephone [32] (2) 230 62 95 FAX [32] (2) 230 87 22 established 19 June 1920 as the International Federation of Christian Trade Unions (IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968 aim to promote the trade union movement members (99 national organizations) Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Bonaire Island, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Curacao, Cyprus, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, French Guiana, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Malta, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Montserrat, Namibia, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe World Court see International Court of Justice (ICJ) World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) address Branicka 112, Branik, CS-14700 Prague 4, Czech Republic telephone [42] (2) 46 21 40 FAX [42] (2) 46 13 78 established 3 October 1945 aim to promote the trade union movement members (116) Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Guiana, The Gambia, Ghana, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nepal, New Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Romania, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zaire, Zimbabwe World Food Council (WFC) address c/o FAO, Via Terme di Caracalla, I-00100 Rome, Italy telephone [39] (6) 522821 FAX [39] (6) 574 5091 established 17 December 1974 aim to study world food problems and to recommend solutions; ECOSOC organization members (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions World Food Program (WFP) address Via Cristoforo Colombo 426, I-00145 Rome, Italy telephone [39] (6) 522821 FAX [39] (6) 5123700, 5133537, 52282840 established 24 November 1961 aim to provide food aid in support of economic development or disaster relief; an ECOSOC organization members (41) selected on a rotating basis from all regions World Health Organization (WHO) address CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 791 21 11, 791 32 23 FAX [41] (22) 791 07 46 established 22 July 1946 effective 7 April 1948 aim UN specialized agency concerned with health matters members (189) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niue, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Samoa, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe associate members (2) Puerto Rico, Tokelau World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) address 34 chemin des Colombettes, Case Postale 18, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 730 9111 FAX [41] (22) 733 5428 established 14 July 1967 effective 26 April 1970 aim to furnish protection for literary, artistic, and scientific works; a UN specialized agency members (147) Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe World Meteorological Organization (WMO) address Case Postale 2300, 41 Av Giuseppe-Motta, CH-1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland telephone [41] (22) 730 81 11 FAX [41] (22) 734 23 26 established 11 October 1947 effective 4 April 1951 aim to sponsor meteorological cooperation; a specialized UN agency members (175) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, British Caribbean Territories, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe World Tourism Organization (WTO or WToO) address Calle Capitan Haya 41, 28020 Madrid, Spain telephone [34] (1) 571 06 28 FAX [34] (1) 571 37 33 established 2 January 1975 aim to promote tourism as a means of contributing to economic development, international understanding, and peace members (121) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (suspended), Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe associate members (4) Aruba, Macau, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico observer (1) Holy See World Trade Organization (WTrO) will be added in The World Factbook 1996 Zangger Committee (ZC) established early 1970s aim to establish guidelines for the export control provisions of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty members (29) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US

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Universalium. 2010.

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