Zenobia

/zeuh noh"bee euh/, n.
1. (Septimia Bathzabbai) died after A.D. 272, queen of Palmyra in Syria A.D. 267-272.
2. a female given name.

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in full Septimia Zenobia

died AD after 274

Queen of the Roman colony of Palmyra (267/268–272).

Her husband, a Roman client ruler of Palmyra, was assassinated after recapturing several of Rome's eastern provinces from the Persians. She became her son's regent but called herself queen. In 269 she seized Egypt and much of Asia Minor and declared her independence from Rome. Aurelian defeated her armies and besieged Palmyra; she and her son were captured and taken to Rome (272), where she was paraded in Aurelian's triumph.

Zenobia, portrait bust; in the Vatican Museum, Rome

Anderson-Giraudon from Art Resource

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▪ queen of Palmyra
in full  Septimia Zenobia , Aramaic  Znwbyā Bat Zabbai 
died after 274
 queen of the Roman colony of Palmyra, in present-day Syria, from 267 or 268 to 272. She conquered several of Rome's eastern provinces before she was subjugated by the emperor Aurelian (ruled 270–275).

      Zenobia's husband, Odaenathus (Odaenathus, Septimius), Rome's client ruler of Palmyra, had by 267 recovered the Roman East from Persian conquerors. After Odaenathus and his eldest son (by his former wife), Herodes (or Herodianus), were assassinated in 267 or 268, Zenobia became regent for her own young son Wahballat (called Vaballathus in Latin, Athenodorus in Greek). Styling herself queen of Palmyra, she had Vaballathus adopt his father's titles of “king of kings” and corrector totius Orientis (“governor of all the East”).

      Nevertheless, unlike Odaenathus, Zenobia was not content to remain a Roman client. In 269 she seized Egypt, then conquered much of Asia Minor and declared her independence from Rome. Marching east, Aurelian defeated her armies at Antioch (now Antakya, Turkey) and at Emesa (now Ḥimṣ, Syria) and besieged Palmyra. Zenobia and Vaballathus tried to flee from the city, but they were captured and taken to Rome (272). The Palmyrenes soon surrendered. When they revolted again in 273, the Romans recaptured and destroyed the city. Zenobia and two of her sons, Herennianus and Timolaus, graced the triumphal procession that Aurelian celebrated at Rome in 274. Vaballathus's fate is unknown, but Zenobia married a Roman senator and presumably spent the rest of her life at his villa near Tibur (now Tivoli, Italy).

Additional Reading
William Wright, An Account of Palmyra and Zenobia: With Travels and Adventures in Bashan and the Desert (1895, reprinted 1987); Agnes Carr Vaughan, Zenobia of Palmyra (1967); Richard Stoneman, Palmyra and Its Empire: Zenobia's Revolt Against Rome (1992); Yasamin Zahran, Zenobia Between Reality and Legend (2003).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Zenobia — ( ar. زنوبيا, 240 after 274) was a Syrian queen who lived in the 3rd century. She was a queen of the Palmyrene Empire and the second wife of King Septimius Odaenathus. Upon his death she became the ruler of the empire. In 269, she conquered Egypt …   Wikipedia

  • Zenobia — Zenobia,   syrisch Bạth Zabbai, als Regentin Septimia Zenobia, Herrscherin von Palmyra (267 272), ✝ wohl im Herbst 272; zweite Gemahlin des Odaenathus, übernahm nach dessen Ermordung die Herrschaft für den unmündigen Sohn Vaballathus, zunächst… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Zenobia — fem. proper name, from Gk. Zenobia, lit. the force of Zeus, from Zen, collateral form of ZEUS (Cf. Zeus), + bia strength, force, cognate with Skt. jya force, power (see JAIN (Cf. Jain)) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Zenobia — [zə nō′bē ə] [L < Gr Zēnobia] 3d cent. A.D.; queen of Palmyra …   English World dictionary

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  • Zenobĭa [2] — Zenobĭa, Stadt in Chalybonitis (Syrien), gegründet von der palmyrenischen Königin Z. u. von Justinian befestigt; es soll nach Einigen das j. Castell Zelebi (Seleby) sein …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Zenobĭa [3] — Zenobĭa, 1) Gattung der Motten (Lichtmotten); das Ansehen ist das der Eulchen, die Flügel haben Glätte der Seide, oben sind wellenförmige Strichelchen, untere Flügel dunkel; die Raupen derselben fressen andere Raupen, heißen daher Mordraupen.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Zenobĭa — Zenobĭa, Septimia, Gemahlin des palmyrenischen Königs Odänathos, schön, tapfer und griechisch gebildet, übernahm nach dessen Tod (267 n. Chr.) an Stelle ihres unmündigen Sohnes Vallabathus die Herrschaft über Palmyra und breitete sie über Syrien… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Zenobia — Zenobĭa, Königin von Palmyra (s.d.), seit 267 n. Chr., Gemahlin des Odenathus II., eroberte Syrien und Ägypten, 271 vom röm. Kaiser Aurelianus gefangen …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Zenobia — Zenobia, Septimia, die weit mehr berühmte als bekannte Königin von Palmyra, Gemahlin des Feldherrn Odenath, welcher die Wirren des röm. Reichs benutzte, um ein syr. Reich mit der Hauptstadt Palmyra zu stiften und 267 n. Chr. ermordet worden sein… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Zenobia — f Classical Greek name: feminine form of Zēnobios, a personal name composed of the elements Zēn (see ZENO (SEE Zeno)) + bios life. This was the name of a queen of Palmyra (fl. AD 267–72), who expanded her empire in the eastern Mediterranean and… …   First names dictionary

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