- a natural glass produced when molten lava cools very rapidly; obsidian.[1830-40]
* * *Such molten material may reach very low temperatures without crystallizing, but its viscosity may become very high. Because high viscosity inhibits crystallization, the combination of sudden cooling and loss of volatiles, as when lava extrudes from a volcanic vent, tends to chill the material to a glass rather than crystallize it.
* * *▪ geologyany glassy rock formed from lava or magma that has a chemical composition close to that of granite (quartz plus alkali feldspar). Such molten material may reach very low temperatures without crystallizing, but its viscosity may become very high. Because high viscosity inhibits crystallization, a sudden cooling and loss of volatiles, as when lava extrudes from a volcanic vent, tends to chill the material to a glass rather than to crystallize it.Volcanic glass is unstable and tends to change spontaneously (devitrify) from the glassy to the crystalline state in periods of time that are relatively short by geologic standards; the material takes on a stony appearance due to the presence of minutely crystalline aggregates. Geologically ancient glasses are therefore very rare, and most glassy rocks are of Tertiary age or younger (less than 66.4 million years old). There is good reason to believe that glassy rocks were abundant in ancient geologic time, but nearly all of these have since devitrified. Devitrification commonly begins along cracks in the glass or around large crystals and may spread outward until eventually the entire mass has been converted to fine crystals of quartz, tridymite, and alkali feldspar.Characteristic of many natural glasses is a streaked or swirly structure that consists of bands or trains of crystals and crystalline bodies. This structure is believed to have been formed by the flowage of viscous lava. Some flow structures consist of alternating bands of different-coloured material; in others, layers of bubble-free glass alternate with highly vesicular glass. See also obsidian; tachylyte.
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Volcanic glass — Volcanic Vol*can ic, a. [Cf. F. volcanique, It. vulcanico.] 1. Of or pertaining to a volcano or volcanoes; as, volcanic heat. [1913 Webster] 2. Produced by a volcano, or, more generally, by igneous agencies; as, volcanic tufa. [1913 Webster] 3.… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
volcanic glass — n. natural glass, as obsidian, formed by the very rapid cooling of molten lava … English World dictionary
Volcanic glass — A sand grain of volcanic glass under the petrographic microscope. Its amorphous nature makes it go extinct in cross polarized light (bottom frame). Scale box in millimeters. Volcanic glass is the amorphous (uncrystallized) product of rapidly… … Wikipedia
volcanic glass — noun a kind of natural glass produced when molten lava cools very rapidly • Hypernyms: ↑volcanic rock • Hyponyms: ↑obsidian, ↑pitchstone, ↑tachylite … Useful english dictionary
volcanic glass — volcan′ic glass′ n. gel a natural glass produced when molten lava cools very rapidly; obsidian • Etymology: 1830–40 … From formal English to slang
volcanic glass — noun Date: circa 1840 natural glass produced by the cooling of molten lava too rapidly to permit crystallization … New Collegiate Dictionary
volcanic glass — /vɒlkænɪk ˈglas/ (say volkanik glahs) noun a natural glass produced when molten lava cools very rapidly; obsidian … Australian English dictionary
volcanic glass — noun another term for obsidian … English new terms dictionary
volcanic dome — USGS PHOTO GLOSSARY OF VOLCANIC TERMS Volcanic domes are rounded, steep sided mounds built by very viscous magma, usually either dacite or rhyolite. Such magmas are typically too viscous (resistant to flow) to move far from the vent before… … Glossary of volcanic terms
volcanic ash — USGS PHOTO GLOSSARY OF VOLCANIC TERMS Volcanic ash consists of rock, mineral, and volcanic glass fragments smaller than 2 mm (0.1 inch) in diameter, which is slightly larger than the size of a pinhead. Volcanic ash is not the same as the soft… … Glossary of volcanic terms