Valencia

/veuh len"shee euh, -sheuh, -see euh/; Sp. /bah len"syah/ or, for 2, 3, /-thyah/, n.
1. Guillermo León /gee yerdd"maw le awn"/, 1909-71, Colombian diplomat and statesman: president 1962-66.
2. a province in E Spain: the region was formerly a Moorish kingdom. 1,767,327; 9085 sq. mi. (23,530 sq. km).
3. a seaport in E Spain. 700,000.
4. a city in N Venezuela. 463,418.
5. a variety of the sweet orange, Citrus sinensis, originally from the Mediterranean area and cultivated extensively in Florida and California.
6. Also, Valentia /veuh len"shee euh, -sheuh/. a female given name.

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I
Autonomous community (pop., 2001: 4,162,776), eastern Spain.

Encompassing the provinces of Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia, it covers 8,979 sq mi (23,255 sq km); its capital is the city of Valencia. A generally mountainous region with salt lagoons on the coast, the area was conquered successively by Romans, Visigoths, and Moors. Part of the caliphate of Córdoba (11th century), it subsequently became an independent Moorish kingdom. It was held by the Spanish commander the Cid (1094–99); after the Cid's death Valencia again was lost to the Moors, until King James I of Aragon took it in 1238. One of the richest farming regions in the Mediterranean basin, it produces oranges, rice, grapes, and olives; it also has many manufacturing facilities.
II
City (pop., 2000 est.: 1,338,833), northwestern Venezuela.

It is located near the western shore of Lake Valencia. Founded in 1555, it rivaled Caracas as the region's major city well into the 19th century. In 1814, during the struggle for Venezuela's independence, it was the site of a bloody battle between Spanish and opposition forces. It served as national capital in 1812, 1830, and 1858. One of Venezuela's principal industrial and transportation centres, it produces textiles, pharmaceuticals, and automobiles.
III
City (pop., 2001: city, 738,441; metro. area, 1,397,809), capital of the autonomous community of Valencia, eastern Spain.

First mentioned as a Roman settlement in 138 BC, it was later taken by the Visigoths in AD 413 and the Moors in 714. It became the seat of the newly established independent Moorish kingdom of Valencia in 1021. After 1238 it was part of the dominions of Aragon. The first Spanish printing press was established in Valencia in 1474; during the next two centuries the city was the seat of the Valencian school of painting. It was severely damaged in the Peninsular War, during the Spanish Civil War, and by flood in 1957. Its port ships agricultural produce and manufactured items.

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Spain
Valencian  València 

      city, capital of both Valencia provincia (province) and the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Valencia, and historical capital of the former kingdom of Valencia, eastern Spain. Located on the Mediterranean coast at the mouth of the Turia (Guadalaviar) River, it is surrounded by orchards in a region known as the Huerta de Valencia. The earliest mention (Valentia) is by the Roman historian Livy, who states that the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus settled the soldier veterans of the Lusitanian leader Viriathus there in 138 BC. It later became a prosperous Roman colony.

      Taken by the Visigoths in AD 413 and in 714 by the Moors, it became in 1021 the seat of the newly established independent Moorish kingdom of Valencia, which extended from Almería to the Ebro estuary. From 1089 until the final capitulation of the city in 1094, the kingdom was fought for by the Spanish soldier-hero El Cid (Cid, the), who eventually secured it from the Moorish Almoravids. It remained in the hands of El Cid, after whom it is sometimes called Valencia del Cid, until his death there in 1099. The Moors recovered the city (and kingdom) in 1102.

      In 1238 James I of Aragon added Valencia to his dominions; but the kingdom continued to be administered separately, with its own laws and parliament. In 1479, with the other countries of the Aragonese crown, the kingdom was united with Castile under the monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella, resulting in a long period of peace during which the city developed rapidly and the arts prospered. The first Spanish printing press is said to have been set up there in 1474, and during the next two centuries the city was the seat of the Valencian school of painting. During the Spanish Civil War it was the loyalist capital from 1936 to 1939.

      Valencia has been called the city of the 100 bell towers, of which the most outstanding are the Gothic Miguelete Tower (1381–1424), adjoining the cathedral, and the hexagonal Tower of Santa Catalina (1688–1705), a fine example of Valencian Baroque style. The most important church is the cathedral, La Seo, situated in the ancient city centre. Begun in the 13th century (completed 1482), it represents several styles—its three doorways are respectively Romanesque, Baroque, and Gothic—and it possesses many works of art, including two large religious paintings by Goya. On Thursdays at noon the doorway opening onto the Plaza de la Constitución is the site of the Tribunal de las Aguas (Water Court), which has been in existence at least since the 10th century. It is composed of farmers who hear disputes over irrigation waters and dispense justice on the spot, conducting all proceedings orally in the Valencian dialect of Catalan.

      Notable civic buildings include the splendid late Gothic (15th century) Lonja de la Seda (Silk Exchange); the Palacio de la Diputación, which housed the parliament of the kingdom of Valencia, with a 15th-century courtyard and beautifully paneled rooms; the Ayuntamiento (Town Hall), a modern building with important archives and the city historical museum; and the 18th-century Neoclassical Palacio de Justicia. Valencia was a walled town, but the walls were removed in the 19th century, and only two of its gates survive. Remains of Moorish buildings include the Almudín (the public granary), which houses the Museum of Paleontology, and the Baños (Baths) del Almirante (13th century).

      Valencia has many botanical gardens and museums of art and ceramics. The City of Arts and Sciences is a large complex that features a planetarium, science museum, and arboretum. Noted for its unique architecture, the complex includes L'Hemisfèric (The Eye of Wisdom), an eye-shaped building designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava (Calatrava, Santiago), and L'Oceanogràfic (Underwater City), Europe's largest marine centre. The city's educational institutions include the University of Valencia (1499).

      Valencia's renowned annual Fallas Festival commemorates St. Joseph, the patron saint of carpenters, and draws thousands of spectators to the city each March. The fallas are towering monuments, effigies made of papier-mâché and wax (and sometimes cork and wood) that together create a scene. (Each individual figure is known as a ninot.) The monuments can take up to a year to create and are usually satirical or humorous in nature. On the eve of St. Joseph's feast day, all the fallas are burned in the streets, except for those ninots that are voted the best, which are preserved in the city's Museum of Las Fallas. The city also has a traditional bullfighting arena, and bullfights become a main attraction during the Fallas Festival.

      From Valencia's port, El Grao, are exported agricultural produce (rice, oranges, lemons, onions, wine) from the region and manufactured items, including furniture, glazed tiles and ceramics, automobiles, textiles, and iron products. Among the city's other industries are shipbuilding and food processing. Services, including tourism, are also important to the economy. Pop. (2007 est.) mun., 797,654.

      city, capital of Carabobo estado (state), northwestern Venezuela, on the Río Cabriales in the central highlands at 1,600 ft (490 m) above sea level, near the western shore of Lake Valencia. It was founded in 1555, eight years before the founding of Caracas, the national capital, as Nueva Valencia del Rey by Alonso Díaz Moreno, a soldier from the Spanish city of Valencia; it rivalled Caracas as the region's major city until well into the 19th century. In 1814, during the struggle that led to Venezuela's independence, the city was the site of a bloody battle between forces of about 200 under Rafael Urdaneta and opposing Spanish forces of about 4,000. The final, decisive battle of that war (June 1821) was fought at Carabobo, 18 mi (29 km) south of the city, and is commemorated by a monument. During and after that war Valencia was three times capital of the republic, in 1812, 1830, and 1858. Today it is one of Venezuela's two major industrial centres; growth factors both historically and presently include its location on the axis of communications between central and western Venezuela and at a pass connecting the cattle-raising Llanos (plains) with the urban consumers of the northern highlands, and its easy access to Puerto Cabello, 34 mi (55 km) by expressway to the north. Lying in the heart of the nation's most fertile and productive agricultural region, Valencia benefits from the wide variety of crops grown there. Industries include the manufacture of animal feeds (it has long been the principal centre for fattening cattle from the plains), fertilizers, food and dairy products, vegetable oils, soaps and detergents, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, paper, cartons, rubber goods, textiles, garments, shoes, cement, furniture, automobile accessories, and motor vehicle assembly. It is the site of the Universidad de Carabobo (1852). The city is linked with Caracas, 75 mi (120 km) to the northeast, by railroad and expressway. Pop. (2001) city, 1,196,000; (2005) urban agglom., 2,451,000.

▪ autonomous area, Spain
Introduction
Catalan  València 

      comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of eastern Spain. It encompasses the provincias (provinces) of Castellón, Valencia, and Alicante. The autonomous community occupies a long and narrow area aligned on a rough north-south axis along the Mediterranean Sea, which lies to the east. It is bounded by the autonomous communities of Catalonia to the north, Aragon to the northeast, Castile–La Mancha to the west, and Murcia to the south. The autonomous community of Valencia was established by the statute of autonomy of July 1, 1982. Its government consists of an executive council, headed by a president, and a unicameral legislative assembly. The capital is Valencia city. Area 8,979 square miles (23,255 square km). Pop. (2007 est.) 4,885,029.

Geography
      The coastal plains on the Mediterranean side of the autonomous community rise into the Iberian and Baetic cordillerasto the west. The landscape of the western mountain region is deeply eroded, being subject to violent downpours followed by prolonged droughts; much of the zone has been stripped of its grass cover. Rolling hills predominate in the southernmost province of Alicante, softening the sharp contrast between coastal plain and mountainous hinterlands found elsewhere in the autonomous community of Valencia. The most sizable stream in the autonomous community, the Segura River, flows eastward through Alicante province. A Mediterranean climate prevails over the autonomous community, which has rainy and mild winters; winters are harsher in the hinterlands. Annual precipitation is low, ranging from 16 to 20 inches (400 to 500 mm), and the agricultural wealth of the coastal plains is based on intensive irrigation. Annual precipitation ranges from 17 inches (430 mm) in the province of Castellón to 11 inches (280 mm) around Elche; the number of months without rain increases from north to south.

      The seacoast has been densely populated since the Muslim occupation (714–1238), and the region's rich farmland is subdivided into small farms, or minifundios. The owners of the minifundios form a rural middle class with strong ties to the urban middle class through marriage and social mobility. The population is becoming increasingly concentrated in the coastal cities, making Valencia one of the largest cities in Spain. The development of the urban infrastructure has not kept pace with the growth of the cities, and urban sprawl is reducing the availability of the rich surrounding farmland.

      Intensive irrigation has made the autonomous community one of the richest farming regions in the Mediterranean basin, with individual farms producing two to four cash crops a year. One-fourth of the land under cultivation is irrigated, with oranges and rice being the main crops. The large-scale cultivation of oranges dates from the late 19th century, when rail transport opened up the European market to Valencian produce. However, Israel, Algeria, and South Africa subsequently cut into the Valencian share of the world orange market. Rice paddies are widespread, and their exceptionally high yields frequently result in overproduction. One-third of the arable land is dry-farmed, producing traditional Mediterranean grapes and almonds. Many cooperatives are found in the region.

      The traditional middle-class farmstead is the alquería, which is built of stone and features a central passage allowing carts access to an enclosed courtyard behind the living quarters. In the upper story the harvest is stored. The farmstead of the poorer peasant is the barraca, which is built of reeds and adobe and roofed with thatch.

      The structure of the manufacturing sector closely parallels that of the agricultural sector, with production generally in the hands of small proprietors whose establishments manufacture a wide range of consumer goods, including furniture, candy, shoes, leather and plastic products, and toys. Factories are widely dispersed, though there is some concentration around the centres of Valencia city, Castellón de la Plana, Alcoy, Elche, Elda, Onteniente, and Sagunto. Several large automotive and metallurgical plants are concentrated in Valencia city.

      The region's service sector is well developed, accounting for a large share of the gross domestic product and employing a commensurate portion of the workforce. Tourism has expanded considerably, though it is unevenly distributed, favouring Alicante over the other provinces in the autonomous community.

      Catalan has traditionally been the language of the middle class, and a Valencian variant has been discernible since the 15th century. Notable Valencian writers of the early 20th century include Vicente Blasco Ibáñez (Blasco Ibáñez, Vicente) and Gabriel Miró (Miró, Gabriel); both authors, however, wrote in Castilian.

      There are numerous religious festivals, many of them recalling the Muslim occupation. The gayates, or festivities, of Castellón commemorate the Reconquest, while various towns in Valencia and Alicante stage festivals featuring Moors and Christians.

History
      Valencia (Valentia) was a prosperous area during the Roman Empire and was taken by the Visigoths in the early 5th century AD. In the early 8th century it was captured by the Moors, and in 1021 it became the newly established independent Moorish kingdom of Valencia. The Christian reconquest of the kingdom of Valencia from Muslim rule by the Crown of Aragon was completed by 1245. The kingdom continued to be administered separately under its own parliament and laws; the Furs de València, which were promulgated in 1261, confirmed Valencia's autonomy under the Crown of Aragon. The regional government was formalized as the Generalitat del Regne in 1418 and was nullified in 1707 by the decree of Nueva Planta, which brought the region under the laws and administration prevailing in the rest of Spain. Various political parties advocating Valencian autonomy came to the fore after World War I.

Vicente Rodriguez

      county, central New Mexico, U.S., in the Mexican Highland section of the Basin and Range Province. The Manzano Mountains lie at its eastern border, and mesas rise in the west. Between mountains and mesas are the southward-flowing Rio Puerco and the Rio Grande. The Isleta (Pueblo) Indian Reservation is in the north, and other areas of interest are Cibola National Forest, Manzano Mountain Wilderness, and Senator Willie M. Chavez State Park.

      Pueblo Indians settled in the Rio Grande valley about 1500 and created productive farmland with irrigation. The Spanish arrived with Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's 1540 expedition. In the next century, Spanish settlers followed El Camino Real to the region and began farming it. Several of Valencia county's towns date from the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Valencia county was established by Mexico in 1844 and was confirmed as part of the New Mexico Territory in 1852.

      Most residents of Valencia county live in the Rio Grande valley. Though agriculture (cattle, milk) persists there, construction, health care, the Santa Fe railroad yards at Belen, and government employment are among the leading elements in the economy. Many residents commute to work in nearby Albuquerque. The county seat is Los Lunas, and Belen is the largest town. Area 1,068 square miles (2,765 square km). Pop.(1990) 45,235.

▪ medieval kingdom, Spain
      medieval kingdom of Spain, alternately Muslim and independent from 1010 to 1238 and thereafter held by the kings of Aragon. Though its territory varied, it generally comprised the modern provinces of Alicante, Castellón, and Valencia.

      When Umayyad power in Moorish Spain disintegrated in the reign of Hisham II (1010), Valencia eventually came to be ruled by ʿAbd al-Aziz al-Mansūr (reigned 1021–61), grandson of the famous Cordoban caliph of that name. Stabilized by the protection of the caliphs of Córdoba and by friendship with Christian princes, his reign marked a period of peace and prosperity. However, his successor, a minor, ʿAbd al-Malik (reigned 1061–65), was attacked by Ferdinand I of Castile and Leon, who missed capturing Valencia but inflicted such a defeat on its defenders that they sought protection from al-Maʾmun, the ruler of Toledo. Al-Maʾmun deposed the minor, and for the next 10 years (1065–75) Valencia formed part of his domains.

      The weakness of al-Qādir, al-Maʾmun's successor, permitted the Valencians to reassert their independence under the leadership of the Toledan governor, Abū Bakr, who allied himself with Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile. But when the latter took Toledo in 1085, he installed al-Qādir as puppet ruler in Valencia with mercenary support. The following year, when the mercenaries were recalled to stem the Almoravids, al-Qādir was left defenseless before his hostile subjects. Several potentates maneuvered to depose him. The count of Barcelona, allied with the Muslim ruler of Zaragoza (Saragossa), besieged Valencia (1089). To forestall them, Alfonso offered the spoils of the city to the freebooter Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, called El Cid. On his approach the siege was lifted, but the Cid (Cid, the) found it more politic to exact protection money from al-Qādir than to occupy the city. This latter course was forced on the Cid when the Valencians assassinated al-Qādir in 1092 and constituted themselves as a republic under Almoravid protection. The Cid ruled Valencia from 1094 until his death in 1099. When his widow was forced to relinquish the kingdom to the Almoravids in 1102, the Christians burned the city before evacuating it.

      For the next 30 years Valencia was ruled by Almoravid governors; but, in the confused period that preceded the arrival of the Almohads, the city again recovered a measure of independence. The Valencians admitted as their overlords several ephemeral Murcian princelings, until the Valencian Ibn Mardanish seized control of both kingdoms in 1147. This prince, of Spanish origins, aroused popular opposition in Valencia by his alliances with the Christians, and in 1151 the Valencians, with Almohad support, revolted against him. The kingdom remained in the hands of local rulers, vassals of the Almohads, until it fell to James I of Aragon on Sept. 28, 1238. Henceforth, its history fused with that of Aragon.

Valencian  València 

      provincia (province) in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Valencia, eastern Spain. It is situated along the Mediterranean Sea. The province centres on the coastal plain of the Gulf of Valencia; it is limited to the south by the mountains of northern Alicante and less clearly to the north by the watershed of the Turia River. Interior plateaus rise westward in a series of faulted steps, representing the edge of the Meseta Central (plateau), trenched deeply by the gorges of the Júcar River and its chief tributary, the Cabriel. Much of the interior is wild, sparsely populated country, opening out onto the lower and richer lands around Requena and Utiel.

      The coastal plain (1,244 square miles [3,222 square km]) is the largest in eastern Spain, and the great majority of the province's wealth and population is concentrated there. The plain's productivity is the result of extensive irrigation, based upon the rivers and continuously developed and expanded since pre-Roman times. Chief products include oranges on the plain and rice near the coast. Cereals, fruit (peaches, tangerines, and apricots), and vegetables are also cultivated on the plain, and olives are grown on the hills, where vineyards are also found. Fishing is of some importance on the coast. Manufactures include textiles, chemicals, paper, furniture, foodstuffs, metals, and ship and automotive parts. There is a nuclear power plant at Cofrentes. The provincial capital is Valencia city; other urban centres are Alcira, Sueca, Torrente, Sagunto, and Cullera. Area 4,172 square miles (10,806 square km). Pop. (2007 est.) 2,486,483.

Vicente Rodriguez
 

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Universalium. 2010.

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