(Maffeo Barberini) 1568-1644, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1623-44.
* * *▪ popeoriginal name Maffeo Barberinibaptized April 5, 1568, Florencedied July 29, 1644, Romepope from 1623 to 1644.The son of an aristocratic Florentine family, Barberini filled many distinguished church appointments. He served as papal legate in France (1601) and was simultaneously appointed (1604) archbishop of Nazareth and nuncio to Paris. Pope Paul V made him cardinal in 1606 and bishop of Spoleto in 1608. He became an astute politician during these years, acquiring many friends and making few enemies. He was elected Pope Gregory XV's successor on Aug. 6, 1623.Urban's pontificate coincided with the ministry of Cardinal de Richelieu (Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, cardinal et duc de) of France and with the decisive period of the Thirty Years' War. His policy, when contrasted with that of his successor, Innocent X, appears to have been decidedly pro-French and hostile to the Roman Catholic cause in Germany. In fact, he desired the extinction of Protestantism everywhere, but, because he ultimately feared Habsburg domination in Italy, he withheld his support from them and allied with their enemy Richelieu. This alliance destroyed the Habsburgs' claim to be considered the exclusive champions of Roman Catholicism and so turned the Thirty Years' War into a conflict of dynastic interests that resulted not so much in the triumph of Protestantism as in the ruin of Germany.Determined to strengthen the papacy's material resources and defense, Urban greatly fortified the Castel Sant'Angelo in Rome (1624–41). He also erected Fort Urbano at Castelfranco, transformed Civitavecchia into a flourishing port with a military harbour, and enlarged the arsenal at Tivoli. The Duchy of Urbino was acquired by the pope in 1626, and the Papal States became a compact, well-defended bloc dominating central Italy. Unfortunately, concurrent with his expensive fortifications and defense plan, Urban was guilty of unrestrained opulence and large-scale nepotism. His building program—which included the grandiose papal villa at Castel Gandolfo and extravagant piazzas and fountains—combined with the enrichment of his family, tended to squander the financial resources of the papacy.In an endeavour to establish supremacy over northern Italy, Urban began the War of Castro (1642–44) against Duke Odoardo I Farnese of Parma, whom he excommunicated in 1642, but the campaign ended in the pope's defeat and humiliation in March 1644. Venice, Tuscany, and Modena then formed an antipapal league to protect Parma, and France also intervened in Odoardo's favour. Peace was concluded at Venice on March 31, 1644, and Urban died soon afterward.Urban's involvements in church affairs were multifarious. For the training of missionaries (mission), he founded (1627) the Collegium Urbanum, and in 1633 he declared China and Japan (which had been closed to proselytization in 1585 by Pope Gregory XIII) open again for missionaries. He denounced the slave trade in Brazil and the West Indies. Urban's bull In eminenti (published in June 1643) condemned the doctrines of Jansenism, a French movement that emphasized God's sovereignty and deemphasized man's free will. Conversely, he approved new orders, among them the Visitandines and the Lazarists, and promulgated several canonizations, including those of Saints Elizabeth of Portugal, Francis Borgia, and John of God. He also issued revisions of the breviary, missal, and pontifical.A promoter of the arts, Urban VIII was the foremost patron of the important Baroque sculptor and architect Gian Lorenzo Bernini (Bernini, Gian Lorenzo), some of whose finest works he commissioned, including the loggias of St. Peter's, Rome, and Urban's tomb in the basilica. Reluctantly, he had his friend Galileo tried and condemned for a short time in 1633.Additional ReadingW.N. Weech, Urban VIII (1905); A. Kraus, Das päpstliche Staatssekretariat unter Urban VIII, 1623–1644 (1964). Laurie Nussdorfer, Civic Politics in the Rome of Urban VIII (1992); Rivka Feldhay, Galileo and the Church (1995).
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Urban VIII. — Urban VIII. Papstwappen Urbans VIII. Urban VIII. (* … Deutsch Wikipedia
Urban VIII — Pope Urban VIII † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Urban VIII Maffeo Barberini, born at Florence in April, 1568; elected pope, 6 August, 1623; died at Rome, 29 July, 1644. His father Antonio Barberini, a Florentine nobleman, who died… … Catholic encyclopedia
Urban VIII — (Maffeo Barberini; r. 1623 1644) Born in Florence in 1568 to a well to do family of merchants, Maffeo Barberini received a Jesuit education, his ecclesiastic career promoted by his uncle, an apostolic protonotary. He graduated with a degree in … Dictionary of Renaissance art
Urban VIII — (1568–1644) Pope. Urban was born Maffeo Barberini in Florence, Italy, and he was educated there and in Pisa. He was created a Cardinal in 1606, consecrated Bishop of Spoleto in 1608, Legate of Bologna in 1617 and he was elected Pope in 1623 … Who’s Who in Christianity
Urban VIII — noun Italian pope from 1623 to 1644 who sanctioned the condemnation of Galileo but later freed him (1568 1644) • Syn: ↑Maffeo Barberini • Instance Hypernyms: ↑pope, ↑Catholic Pope, ↑Roman Catholic Pope, ↑pontiff, ↑Holy Father, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Urban VIII, Pope — • Maffeo Barberini (1568 1644) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Urban VIII — Urban VIII Papacy began 6 August 1623 Papacy ended 29 July 1644 ( 1000000000000002000000020 years … Wikipedia
Pope Urban VIII — Pope Urban VIII † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Urban VIII Maffeo Barberini, born at Florence in April, 1568; elected pope, 6 August, 1623; died at Rome, 29 July, 1644. His father Antonio Barberini, a Florentine nobleman, who died… … Catholic encyclopedia
Liste der Kardinalskreierungen Urban VIII. — Papst Urban VIII. kreierte im Verlauf seines Pontifikates folgende Kardinäle: Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 2. Oktober 1623 2 7. Oktober 1624 3 19. Januar 1626 4 30. August 1627 5 19. November 1629 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Glorification of the reign of Urban VIII, Palazzo Barberini, Rome — (1633 1639) Commissioned by the Barberini from Pietro da Cortona, the Glorification of the Reign of Urban VIII shows Divine Providence commanding Immortality to crown the Barberini escutcheon, composed of bees contained in a laurel wreath held … Dictionary of Renaissance art