- /tuy"reuhnt/, n.1. a sovereign or other ruler who uses power oppressively or unjustly.2. any person in a position of authority who exercises power oppressively or despotically.3. a tyrannical or compulsory influence.4. an absolute ruler, esp. one in ancient Greece or Sicily.[1250-1300; ME tirant < OF < L tyrannus < Gk týrannos]Syn. 1. despot, autocrat, dictator.
* * *In ancient Greece, a cruel and oppressive absolute ruler.The Greek tyrannos was a ruler who seized power unconstitutionally or inherited such power. Though tyrants often replaced aristocratic regimes that were themselves unpopular, the Greeks resented their illegal autocracy, and those who killed tyrants received high honours. Cypselus and Periander of Corinth and Dionysius I of Syracuse were among the most famous tyrants.
* * *▪ ancient GreeceGreek Tyrannosa cruel and oppressive ruler or, in ancient Greece, a ruler who seized power unconstitutionally or inherited such power. In the 10th and 9th centuries BC, monarchy had been the usual form of government in the Greek states; the aristocratic regimes that had replaced monarchy were by the 7th century BC themselves unpopular. Thus the opportunity arose for ambitious men to seize power in the name of the oppressed.The best-known tyrannies were those founded by Cypselus at Corinth and Orthagoras at Sicyon about 650 BC. There were tyrants also in Asiatic Greece, the most famous of whom was Thrasybulus of Miletus (c. 600). The tyrants often sprang from the fringe of the aristocracy; for example, the mother of Cypselus belonged to the ruling clan of the Bacchiads, but his father did not. The nature of the public discontent that provided them with a following may have varied from place to place. At Sicyon, Cleisthenes, who ruled from about 600 to about 570 and was the most successful of the Orthagorids, expressed or exploited the resentment felt by the non-Dorian and underprivileged element in society toward those who claimed descent from the Dorian invaders. Some historians have supposed that the introduction of the hoplite phalanx early in the 7th century led to the development of a class of substantial farmers, who served in the phalanx and supported the tyrants as their champions against the aristocracies. But although the tyrants may have made use of hoplite tactics, substantial farmers were probably a conservative, not a revolutionary, force, and there is no reason to suppose that farmer-hoplites developed class consciousness.Tyrants eventually came to be considered oppressive, especially by their rivals for political power. Cypselus' son Periander, whose powerful reign at Corinth lasted about 40 years, came to be regarded as a typically bad tyrant. The Corinthian tyranny fell in the late 580s soon after he died.Sparta, which had developed a constitution under which all citizens were soldiers and theoretically equal, avoided tyranny. Peisistratus established a tyranny at Athens in the middle of the 6th century; his son Hippias was expelled by King Cleomenes I of Sparta in 510. This may be taken as the end of the “age of tyrants” but not the end of tyranny. The Persians preferred to keep tyrants in charge of the Greek cities of Anatolia, which they conquered about 540.In the west, where military autocracy easily took root, the popularity of Gelon of Syracuse rested to a great extent on his defeat of the Carthaginians at Himera in 480; his brother and successor, Hieron, patron of Pindar and others, won a celebrated victory over the Etruscans at Cumae in 474. In 405 Dionysius I of Syracuse, the most powerful of all tyrants, first established his rule during the crisis of another Carthaginian invasion.In the Hellenistic period some tyrants rested their power on class feeling; others were foreign nominees, like the tyrants supported by the Macedonian kings in the Peloponnese in the 3rd century. The phenomenon continued as long as Greece was free. The great tyrants were notable patrons of the arts and conspicuous builders. They often aided in the transition from narrow aristocracy to more democratic constitutions, but the Greeks in principle chafed under their illegal autocracy; tyranny thus early acquired a bad name, and tyrannicides such as Harmodius and Aristogiton, who killed Hippias' brother Hipparchus at Athens, received the highest honours.
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Tyrant — Жанр атмосферный блэк метал (ранний), симфонический блэк метал Годы с 1994 Страна … Википедия
Tyrant — Tyr ant (t[imac] rant), n. [OE. tirant, tiraunt, tyraunt, OF. tiran, tirant (probably from confusion with the p. pr. of verbs), F. tyran, L. tyrannus, Gr. ty rannos, originally, an absolute sovereign, but afterwards, a severe or cruel ruler.] 1.… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
tyrant — c.1300, absolute ruler, from O.Fr. tyrant (12c.), from L. tyrannus lord, master, tyrant (Cf. Sp. tirano, It. tiranno), from Gk. tyrannos lord, master, sovereign, absolute ruler, a loan word from a language of Asia Minor (probably Lydian); Cf.… … Etymology dictionary
Tyrant — Ty rant, v. i. To act like a tyrant; to play the tyrant; to tyrannical. [Obs.] Fuller. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
tyrant — index dictator Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 tyrant n. A single absolute ruler; a … Law dictionary
tyrant — In modern use the word denotes the manner in which authority is exercised, i.e. oppressively and cruelly. In its ancient Greek context, it refers to the manner in which authority was achieved, i.e. by unconstitutional means. Once in power, a… … Modern English usage
tyrant — [n] person who dictates, oppresses absolute ruler, absolutist, authoritarian, autocrat, bully, despot, dictator, Hitler*, inquisitor, martinet, oppressor, slave driver*, Stalin*; concepts 354,412 Ant. democrat … New thesaurus
tyrant — ► NOUN 1) a cruel and oppressive ruler. 2) a person exercising power or control in a cruel and arbitrary way. 3) (especially in ancient Greece) a ruler who seized absolute power without legal right. ORIGIN Greek turannos … English terms dictionary
tyrant — [tī′rənt] n. [ME tirant < OFr tiran, tirant (with t after ending ant of prp.) < L tyrannus < Gr tyrannos] 1. an absolute ruler; specif., in ancient Greece, etc., one who seized sovereignty illegally; usurper 2. a cruel, oppressive ruler; … English World dictionary
Tyrant — In modern usage, a tyrant is a single ruler holding absolute power over a state or within an organization. The term carries modern connotations of a harsh and cruel ruler who places his or her own interests or the interests of a small oligarchy… … Wikipedia
tyrant — Used historically of someone who seizes sovereign power in a state and becomes an absolute ruler, often enforcing that rule with acts of cruelty. The word is used more loosely of anyone who exercises power, and it could once be applied to… … A dictionary of epithets and terms of address