Tyne and Wear
- /wear/a metropolitan county in N England. 1,192,600.
* * *Metropolitan county (pop., 2001: 1,075,979), northeastern England.It was named for its two main rivers, the Tyne and the Wear. Settled since prehistoric times, the area was occupied by the Romans, who built Hadrian's Wall. Saxon, then Norman settlement followed. From the 13th century to recent times, the economy was based on local coal reserves and on such coal-dependent industries as glass, pottery, and chemicals. The main industries now include shipbuilding and heavy electrical engineering.
* * *metropolitan county in northeastern England. Named for its two main rivers, the Tyne and the Wear, it is bounded by the administrative counties of Northumberland (north and west) and Durham (south) and by the North Sea (east). It is an urban, industrial region that comprises five metropolitan boroughs: Gateshead, North Tyneside, South Tyneside, and the cities of Sunderland and Newcastle upon Tyne. The boroughs north of the River Tyne (Newcastle upon Tyne and North Tyneside) are part of the historic county of Northumberland, while those to the south (Gateshead, South Tyneside, and Sunderland) belong to the historic county of Durham. From 1974 to 1986 Tyne and Wear was an administrative unit. In 1986 the metropolitan county lost its administrative powers, and its constituent boroughs became autonomous administrative units, or unitary authorities. Tyne and Wear is now a geographic and ceremonial county without administrative authority.Exploitation of the area's greatest historic asset, coal, began in the 13th century but was restricted to the exposed coalfield west of Newcastle, near the river for easy transport. Throughout medieval times coal was exported from Newcastle to London, but it was not until the wood shortage of Elizabethan times that coal became important as domestic fuel and trade increased dramatically. During the 18th century, improvements in mining techniques and the development of the steam engine enabled the exploration of the concealed coalfield east of Newcastle. Long before the Industrial Revolution, coal-dependent industries (glass, pottery, chemicals, and iron) developed along the Tyne. For a time Tyneside was also the country's chief salt-producing area, using coal to evaporate seawater.The 19th century brought two major advances: the development of heavy transport (railways and later iron ships) and the widening market for different types of coal for smelting, gas, and steam production. With the coming of the railways, the mines were no longer limited by accessibility to water transport and thus were able to penetrate farther east into the concealed coalfield beneath the limestone. Drab mining settlements came into being, often attached to existing agricultural villages. Industrial development during the late 19th century concentrated in the Tyneside ports. The old industries—salt, glass, and chemicals—declined and were replaced by expanding shipyards building new iron ships.Like most British areas strongly dependent upon heavy industry, the region suffered during the depressed years between World Wars I and II, and unemployment remains a problem despite efforts to diversify the industrial structure. The disappearance of coal mining and the decline of heavy industry in the area by the end of the 20th century shifted the economic focus to newer manufacturing sectors, such as electronics and automotive engineering, and to service activities. Area 208 square miles (539 square km). Pop. (2005 est.) 1,095,200.
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Tyne and Wear — Tyne et Wear Administration Statut Comté métropolitain Comté cérémonial Région Angleterre du Nord Est Superficie Total 540 km² … Wikipédia en Français
Tyne and Wear — Geografie Status: Zeremonielle Grafschaft Region: North East England Fläche: 540 km² Demografi … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tyne and Wear — /wear/ a metropolitan county in N England. 1,192,600. * * * Tyne and Wear [Tyne and Wear] a small ↑metropolitan county in north east England, formed in 1974 from parts of ↑Durham and ↑Northumberland … Useful english dictionary
Tyne and Wear — a metropolitan county in northern England, made up of parts of Northumberland and Durham, and including Newcastle upon Tyne … Dictionary of contemporary English
Tyne and Wear — [ taɪn ənd wɪə], Metropolitan County in Nordostengland, 540 km2, 1,31 Mio. Einwohner; Verwaltungssitz ist Newcastle upon Tyne, andere Städte sind u. a. Sunderland, South Shields, Gateshead und Tynemouth; Altindustriegebiet auf der Basis von… … Universal-Lexikon
Tyne and Wear — county in N England, on the Tyne & the North Sea: 207 sq mi (536 sq km); pop. 1,095,000 … English World dictionary
Tyne and Wear — Tyne′ and Wear′ [[t]wɪər[/t]] n. geg a metropolitan county in NE England. 1,135,800 … From formal English to slang
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Tyne and Wear — Sp Táinas ir Viras Ap Tyne and Wear L Anglijos metropol. grafystė, Jungtinė Karalystė … Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė