Troilus and Cressida
a satiric comedy (1598-1602?) by Shakespeare.
* * *Lovers in medieval romance, based on characters from Greek mythology.In the Iliad, Troilus, son of Priam and Hecuba, is dead before the Trojan War starts. In non-Homeric legends he was said to have been killed during the war by Achilles. He was first turned into a romantic figure in the Middle Ages, when he was portrayed as an innocent young lover betrayed by the faithless Cressida, who abandoned him for the Greek warrior Diomedes. The first version of the story was written by the 12th-century trouvère Benoît de Sainte-Maure in the poem "Roman de Troie." More famous versions include Giovanni Boccaccio's "Il Filostrato," Geoffrey Chaucer's "Troilus and Criseyde," and William Shakespeare's drama Troilus and Cressida.
* * *▪ work by Shakespearedrama in five acts by William Shakespeare (Shakespeare, William), written about 1601–02 and printed in a quarto edition in two different “states” in 1609, probably from the author's working draft. The editors of the First Folio of 1623 may have had copyright difficulties in obtaining permission to include this play in their collection; it is anomalously placed between the histories and the tragedies, almost entirely without pagination. Its genre is indeed anomalous; many scholars prefer to classify it with the “problem plays” or the “dark” comedies. Based on George Chapman (Chapman, George)'s translation of the Iliad and on 15th-century accounts of the Trojan War by John Lydgate (Lydgate, John) and William Caxton (Caxton, William), Troilus and Cressida is an often cynical exploration of the causes of strife between and within the Greek and Trojan armies—the betrayal of love, the absence of heroism, and the emptiness of honour. The play was also influenced by Geoffrey Chaucer (Chaucer, Geoffrey)'s love poem Troilus and Criseyde, although Shakespeare's treatment of the lovers and his attitude toward their dilemma is in sharp contrast to Chaucer's.Cressida, a Trojan woman whose father has defected to the Greeks, pledges her love to Troilus, one of King Priam's sons. However, when her father demands her presence in the Greek camp, she reluctantly accepts the attentions of Diomedes, the Greek officer who has been sent to escort her to the Greek side. Given her situation in an enemy camp and being an attractive woman among sex-starved warriors, she has few choices. The love between Troilus and Cressida, begun on such a hopeful note, is at last overwhelmed by the circumstances of war that they cannot control. Meanwhile, the war itself is presented in all its seamy aspects, since it is at bottom a senseless war fought over the possession of Helen, wife of Menelaus of Sparta but now the mistress of the Trojan prince Paris. Their one scene together presents Helen and Paris as vapid and self-centred. Other figures fare no less well. The legendary Greek hero Achilles is depicted as petulant and greedy for honour, so much so that he brutally massacres the great Hector when that warrior is unarmed. Hector, for his part, is at once the wisest of the Trojans and a captive of his own sense of honour that obliges him to go into battle when his wife and family all warn him of ominous prognostications. The Greek general Agamemnon is given to long-winded speeches; so is old Nestor. Ulysses, the most astute of the Greek generals, is right-minded about many things but also cynical and calculating. Ajax, another Greek officer, is an oaf, easily put upon by his colleagues. Thersites, a deformed Greek, comments wryly on the actions of the other characters, while Pandarus, the bawdy go-between of the lovers, enjoys watching their degradation. The drama ends on a note of complete moral and political disintegration.For a discussion of this play within the context of Shakespeare's entire corpus, see William Shakespeare: Shakespeare's plays and poems (Shakespeare, William).
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Troilus and Cressida — is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1602. The play (also described as one of Shakespeare s problem plays) is not a conventional tragedy, since its protagonist (Troilus) does not die. The play ends instead on a… … Wikipedia
Troilus and Cressida — a satiric comedy (1598 1602?) by Shakespeare. * * * Troilus and Cressida [Troilus and Cressida] a play by William Shakespeare, probably written in 1602. It tells the unhappy story of two young lovers in Troy at the time of the Trojan War … Useful english dictionary
Troilus and Cressida — Troi|lus and Cres|si|da a play by William Shakespeare, set at the time of the Trojan War, about the unhappy love affair between two lovers, Troilus and Cressida … Dictionary of contemporary English
Troilus and Cressida — Troïlus et Cressida L Histoire de Toïlus et Cressida est une pièce de théâtre de William Shakespeare, écrite certainement vers 1602. Cette pièce qui suit immédiatement la rédaction d Hamlet, a été publiée dans deux éditions différentes, toutes… … Wikipédia en Français
Troilus and Cressida — Play by Shakespeare (c. 1601). The poem by Geoffrey Chaucer is Troylus and Criseyde. In Boccaccio’s Il Filostrato the spelling is Criseida … Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors
Troilus and Cressida (opera) — Troilus and Cressida is the first of the two operas by William Walton. The libretto was by Christopher Hassall, his own first opera libretto, based on Chaucer s poem Troilus and Criseyde < [cite journal | url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0027 … Wikipedia
Troilus and Cressida (opéra) — Ne doit pas être confondu avec Troïlus et Cressida. Troilus and Cressida est un opéra en trois actes de William Walton sur un livret de Christopher Hassall d après le poème de Geoffrey Chaucer. Il est créé le 3 décembre 1954 au… … Wikipédia en Français
Troilus und Cressida — Eine Szene vom Troilus und Cressida von Angelica Kauffmann Troilus und Cressida (engl. Troilus and Cressida) ist ein Drama von William Shakespeare, das Liebe und Krieg behandelt und ebenso tragische wie komische Züge aufweist. Es ist kurz nach… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Troilus and Criseyde — (circa 1380 87) is Geoffrey Chaucer s poem in rhyme royal ( rime royale ) re telling the tragic love story of Troilus, a Trojan prince, and Criseyde. Scholarly consensus is that Chaucer completed Troilus and Criseyde by the mid 1380 s. Many… … Wikipedia
Troilus and Criseyde — by Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. 1385) Troilus and Criseyde is Geoffrey CHAUCER’s longest complete poem, at 8,239 lines of RHYME ROYAL stanzas, divided into five books. Written in the mid to late 1380s, soon after The KNIGHT’S TALE and his… … Encyclopedia of medieval literature