Trier

/trear/, n.
a city in W Germany, on the Moselle River: extensive Roman ruins; cathedral. 93,472. Also called Treves. French, Trèves.

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French  Trèves , Latin  Augusta Treverorum 
 city, Rhineland-Palatinate Land (state), southwestern Germany. It lies on the right bank of the Moselle (Mosel) River (Moselle River), surrounded by the foothills of the Eifel, Hunsrück, and Mosel mountains, just east of the border with Luxembourg. A shrine of the Treveri, a Germanic tribe, existed at the site (c. 400 BC). The Roman town was founded by the emperor Augustus about 15 BC. The city's strategic position at a crossroads contributed to its rapid rise as a commercial and administrative centre; it was the capital of the Belgic division of Roman Gaul in the 2nd century AD, an imperial seat in the 3rd century, and later, as Treveris, the seat of the emperor responsible for Gaul and Britain. After it became a bishopric in the 4th century, the town was a centre of Christianity north of the Alps, a status it maintained after its capture by the Franks in the 5th century. Trier was designated an archbishopric in 815, its archbishops becoming temporal princes with power over extensive territory; they were made electors of the Holy Roman Empire in the late 12th century.

      Trier flourished as a commercial and cultural centre with a university (1473–1797) until French encroachments led to its decline in the 17th century. It was occupied by the French in 1797 and was formally ceded to France in 1801, when the electorate was dissolved. Trier passed to Prussia in 1815, and the bishopric was reconstituted in 1821. The city grew rapidly in the 19th century but suffered French occupation again after World War I and was considerably damaged in World War II. It revived as a commercial and cultural centre after 1946 and was rebuilt.

      Trier serves as a hub for road, rail, and water traffic on the western border of Germany. It is the trade centre for the surrounding region, especially for wines, and it is also an important tourist destination. Diversified industries include the manufacture of beer, food products, textiles, and precision instruments.

      Trier has preserved more Roman monuments than any other German city. They include the 4th-century Porta Nigra, a fortified town gate; ruins of 4th-century Roman baths and substructures of baths from the 2nd century; the amphitheatre (c. AD 100); and the basilica, with the throne room of the Roman emperors, and the nucleus of the cathedral, both from the 4th century. Both the Porta Nigra and the basilica were converted into churches in the Middle Ages but have since been restored. The cathedral, largely Romanesque, was rebuilt in about 550 and extended in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. Other notable churches include the Church of Our Lady (1235–70); the Church of St. Gangolf (13th to 15th century); the Abbey Church of St. Matthias (1127–60), with the tomb of the saint; and the Baroque Church of St. Paulin (1734–57), designed by Balthasar Neumann (Neumann, Balthasar). Trier's Roman monuments, the cathedral, and the Church of Our Lady were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1986. Civic monuments include the Market Cross from 958 and the Petersbrunnen (Peter's Fountain; 1595), both in the market square; nearby are the Kesselstatt Palace (1740–45) and the Electoral Palace (1614). The Catholic theological faculty, part of the university founded in 1473, was refounded in 1950.

      The city is the seat of the University of Trier (founded 1970 as part of the Trier-Kaiserslautern University; became autonomous in 1975). It also contains the Rhineland Museum, which features sculptures and prehistoric, Roman, and Frankish art. Trier is the birthplace of St. Ambrose (Ambrose, Saint) (c. AD 339), who converted and baptized St. Augustine (Augustine, Saint), and of Karl Marx (Marx, Karl) (1818), the German political philosopher and socialist. Pop. (2003 est.) 100,180.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • trier — [ trije ] v. tr. <conjug. : 7> • 1170; probablt bas lat. tritare « broyer », du class. terere 1 ♦ Choisir parmi d autres; extraire d un plus grand nombre, après examen. ⇒ sélectionner. Trier des semences une à une. Trier sur le volet. 2 ♦… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Trier — Trier: Stadt an der Mosel. * * * I Trier,   1) kreisfreie Stadt, Hauptstadt des Regierungsbezirks Trier und Verwaltungssitz des Landkreises Trier Saarburg, Rheinland Pfalz, 130 150 m über dem …   Universal-Lexikon

  • TRIER — (Treves), city in Germany and formerly also a bishopric. Archaeological evidence seems to point to the presence of Jews in Trier as early as the end of the third century C.E., although the existence of a Jewish community there at the time is… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Trier [2] — Trier (lat. Augusta Trevirorum, franz. Trèves), Hauptstadt des vormaligen Erzbistums sowie des jetzigen gleichnamigen Regierungsbezirks, Stadtkreis, in der preuß. Rheinprovinz, an der Mosel, über die hier eine alte, auf acht Schwibbogen ruhende… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Trier [1] — Trier, vormaliges Erzstift u. geistliches Kurfürstenthum, zum kurrheinischen Kreise gerechnet; grenzte an Nassau, Niederkatzenellnbogen, Simmern, Sponheim, die Besitzungen der Rheingrafen, an Lothringen, Luxemburg, Schleiden, Gerolstein u. an das …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Trier [2] — Trier (franz. Trèves), 1) Regierungsbezirk der preußischen Provinz od. des Großherzogthums Niederrhein, besteht aus dem größten Theile des Erzstiftes T., Theilen von Luxemburg, des Fürstenthums Veldenz, der Grafschaft Saarbrück, Blankenheim u.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Trier [1] — Trier, vormaliges deutsches Erzstift und geistliches Kurfürstentum im kurrheinischen Kreis, umfaßte ein Areal von 8314 qkm (151 QM.) mit 280,000 meist kath. Einwohnern und teilte sich in das obere und niedere Stift, deren ersteres Trier, das… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • trier — TRIER. v. a. Choisir entre plusieurs choses, entre plusieurs personnes. Trier du bled. trier des raisins. trier des pois, des lentilles. les Libraires ont trié les meilleurs livres de cette Bibliotheque. il a trié les Medailles les plus curieuses …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • trier — tri·er / trī ər/ n: trier of fact Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996. trier …   Law dictionary

  • trier — (Sic enim vulgo proferunt) vrbs est ad Rhenum, Augusta Treuerorum, nunc Treueris. Le pays circonvoisin de Trier, Treueri, vel Treuiri. Trier et eslire, ou separer l un d avec {{o=davec}} l autre, Legere, Eligere, Seligere, Deligere, Segregare …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • Trier — Tri er, n. [From {Try}.] 1. One who tries; one who makes experiments; one who examines anything by a test or standard. Boyle. [1913 Webster] 2. One who tries judicially. [1913 Webster] 3. (Law) A person appointed according to law to try… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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