Toledo

/teuh lee"doh/; for 1, 3, 4, also Sp. /taw le"dhaw/, n., pl. Toledos /-dohz/; Sp. /-dhaws/ for 4.
1. Francisco de /frddahn sees"kaw dhe/, c1515-84?, Spanish administrator: viceroy of Peru 1569-81.
2. a port in NW Ohio, on Lake Erie. 354,635.
3. a city in central Spain, on the Tagus River: the capital of Spain under the Romans. 44,382.
4. a sword or sword blade of finely tempered steel, a formerly made in Toledo, Spain.

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I
City (pop., 2000: 313,619), northwestern Ohio, U.S. It is the principal Great Lakes port, located at the southwestern end of Lake Erie.

The area was opened to white settlement after the 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers. Formed by the consolidation of two villages in 1833, it figured in the so-called Toledo War of 1835–36, a bloodless dispute between Michigan Territory and Ohio over the location of their common boundary. Industrial development was spurred in the 1830s and '40s by the arrival of canals and railroads. Glassmaking, now a major industry, was introduced in the late 1880s. A major commercial, industrial, and transportation centre, it handles considerable foreign commerce, and its port is one of the world's largest shippers of bituminous coal. Its educational institutions include the University of Toledo (1872).
II
ancient Toletum

City (pop., 2001: 68,382), capital of Castile–La Mancha autonomous community, south-central Spain.

On the Tagus River, it was the stronghold of the Carpentini, a powerful Iberian tribe, when it was conquered by Rome in 193 BC. In the 6th century AD it became the Visigoths' capital in Spain. Under the Moors (712–1085) it became a centre of Hebrew and Arabic culture, and it was noted for the manufacture of swords. Taken by Alfonso VI in 1085, it became the capital of New Castile and, in 1230, of the united kingdom of Castilla y León. Toledo was noted for its policy of religious tolerance toward Jews and Arabs during the 11th–15th centuries. It lost importance after Philip II moved the capital to Madrid in 1560. The French occupied Toledo during the Peninsular War (1808–14), and Nationalist forces besieged it (1936) in the Spanish Civil War. Known for its great wealth of notable architecture, the entire urban area is a national monument. It was the home of El Greco.

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      city, seat (1835) of Lucas county, northwestern Ohio, U.S., at the mouth of the Maumee River (bridged). It lies along Maumee Bay (southwestern tip of Lake Erie), about 55 miles (89 km) southwest of Detroit, Mich., and is a principal Great Lakes port, being the hub of a metropolitan complex that includes Ottawa Hills, Maumee, Oregon, Sylvania, Perrysburg, and Rossford. The area was opened to white settlement after the Battle of Fallen Timbers, a conflict fought nearby in 1794 and resolved in a series of treaties negotiated with Native Americans between 1795 and 1817. Fort Industry (1803–05) was located at the mouth of Swan Creek (now downtown Toledo), where permanent settlement was made after the War of 1812. Two villages, Port Lawrence (1817) and Vistula (1832), were consolidated in 1833 and named for Toledo, Spain. The united community was incorporated as a city in 1837.

      Ohio's (Ohio) decision to include the Toledo area (then part of the Michigan Territory) in the state's canal system led to a bloodless 1835 boundary dispute called the Toledo War. Residents of the city organized to transfer the political jurisdiction of the lower Maumee from the Michigan Territory to Ohio. Michigan, led by Gov. Stevens T. Mason, opposed this and sent troops. Ohio governor Robert Lucas called out the militia, and the state legislature organized most of the disputed area into Lucas county, with the present Ohio line as the northern boundary. The dispute was settled by Pres. Andrew Jackson in favour of Ohio. In 1836 the U.S. Congress compensated Michigan for the loss by awarding it the Upper Peninsula and admitting it to statehood.

      Industrial development was spurred in the 1830s and '40s by the arrival of the railroads, the construction of the Wabash and Erie and Miami and Erie canals, and by the discovery of local deposits of petroleum and natural gas in 1844. Glassmaking (which became a major industry) was introduced in the late 1880s by Edward Libbey and Michael Owens. Toledo is now a major commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. Its port, connected with the St. Lawrence Seaway, is one of the world's largest for bituminous coal shipping. The port's free-trade zone, allowing duty-free foreign trade, handles mostly grain, metal ores, machines and tools, motor vehicles, and industrial equipment. Highly diversified manufactures include glass, automobiles (including the celebrated Jeep), automotive parts, plastics, furniture and cabinets, rubber, petroleum, laundry equipment, machinery, and tools.

      The University of Toledo was established in 1872, Davis College in 1858, , and Owens Community College in 1965. The Toledo Museum of Art has notable collections of glass, African and Asian art, and European and American painting. The city has a Roman Catholic cathedral (Our Lady Queen of the Most Holy Rosary), an orchestra, a hands-on science museum, and zoological gardens with an open-air amphitheatre. Nearby are Crane Creek and Harrison Lake state parks. Raceway Park is a venue for harness racing. Pop. (2000) city, 313,619; Toledo MSA, 659,188; (2005 est.) city, 301,285; Toledo MSA, 656,696.

      city, on the western coast of Cebu island, Philippines. It is the site of the nation's largest copper mine; the ore is extracted by strip or open-cut mining, concentrated, and trucked to the port of Sangi. There also is a major coalfield nearby. Local agriculture (corn [maize], coconuts) adds to the city's economy. Toledo has a commercial airport and ferry service across Tañon Strait to San Carlos on the island of Negros. Inc. city, 1960. Pop. (2000) 141,174.

Spain
 city, capital of Toledo provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Castile–La Mancha, south-central Spain. It is situated on a rugged promontory washed on three sides by the Tagus River, 42 miles (67 km) south-southwest of Madrid.

      Of ancient origin, Toledo is mentioned by the Roman historian Livy as urbs parva, sed loco munita (“a small city, but fortified by location”). Conquered by the Roman general Marcus Fulvius Nobilior in 193 BC, it became an important Roman colony and the capital of Carpentia. The city was the residence of the Visigothic court in the 6th century and site of the famous councils, the third of which (589) was particularly important because of King Recared's conversion to Christianity. During the Moorish period (712–1085), it was the home of an important Mozarab community (Arabic-speaking Christians). Taken by King Alfonso VI in 1085, it became the most important political and social centre of Castile. It was the scene of a fusion of Christian, Arab, and Jewish culture, an example of which was the School of Translators (Escuela de Traductores) established by Alfonso X (the Wise) in the 13th century. The city's importance declined after Philip II made Madrid his capital (1560).

      Toledo is considered most representative of Spanish culture, and its historic centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1986. Its rocky site is traversed by narrow, winding streets, with steep gradients and rough surfaces, centring on the Plaza del Zocodover. Two bridges cross the Tagus: in the northeast is the bridge of Alcántara, at the foot of the medieval castle of San Servando, parts of which date from Roman and Moorish times; in the northwest is the bridge of San Martín, dating from the late 13th century. Parts of the walls of Toledo are of Visigothic origin, although most are Moorish or Christian. There are well-preserved gateways from various periods, including the Puerta Vieja de Bisagra (10th century), traditionally used by Alfonso VI in 1085.

 Important buildings showing Islamic influence include the former mosques of Bib-al-Mardom (Cristo de la Luz; 10th century), with interesting cross vaulting, and of Las Toernerías; the Mudéjar synagogues of Santa María la Blanca (12th century) and El Tránsito (14th century; housing the Sephardic museum); and the Mudéjar churches of San Román, of Cristo de la Vega, of Santiago del Arrabal, and of Santo Tomé. The last has a fine tower and a chapel containing the painting Burial of the Conde de Orgaz by El Greco (Greco, El).

      The cathedral, generally considered the most Hispanic of Spanish Gothic cathedrals, was begun by King Ferdinand III and Archbishop Rodrigo Jimenez de Rada in 1226. Outstanding among innumerable works of art are the choir stalls, the large retablo mayor (raised altarpiece), the ornate chapel of Don Alvaro de Luna, the Mozarab Chapel, and the Chapter House. There is also a rich museum that has a processional custodia (for carrying the monstrance and host) by Enrique de Arfe (1524) and a series of paintings by El Greco, Francisco de Goya, Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Luis de Morales, and others. The elaborate Church of San Juan de los Reyes, constructed by Juan Guas, is in Isabelline style.

      Of the same period is the Casa de la Santa Hermandad, now partly a museum. Dating from the early 16th century is the Hospital de Santa Cruz, designed by Enrique de Egas, restored and now used for the Provincial Museum of Archaeology and Fine Arts. Construction of the Alcázar (fortress), which dominates the city, began about 1531 to a design by Alonso de Covarrubias and with a fine patio by Francisco Villalpando; it houses the Army Museum. Its defense by the Nationalists in 1936 was one of the most heroic episodes of the Spanish Civil War. Other renowned buildings include the Ayuntamiento (early 18th century), the numerous Baroque churches, the Neoclassical Hospital del Nuncio and the Institute of Secondary Education, the museums of El Greco's house and of the Taller del Moro, and the modern Military Academy of Infantry. The city also has numerous parks and promenades.

      Toledan steel and particularly swords (sword) have long been famous, being mentioned as early as the 1st century BC in the Cynegetica of Grattius “Faliscus.” There is an important National Factory of Arms and workshops for damask and engraving, which produce metalwork decorated in the Mudéjar tradition. A characteristic product is marzipan, a Christmas sweet made from almonds and sugar.

      Since the 1990s the city's economic focus has changed from agriculture to industry, in particular to the manufacture of chemicals, machinery, furniture, and electronics. Commerce, services, and tourism also have increased in importance owing to Toledo's proximity to Madrid. Pop. (2006 est.) 77,601.

 provincia (province) in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Castile–La Mancha, south-central Spain. It is bordered by the provinces of Ávila and Madrid to the north, Cuenca to the east, Ciudad Real to the south, and Cáceres and Badajoz to the west. Most of the province is crossed by the Tagus River and its numerous tributaries. In the northwest there is a mountainous area that joins the Sierra de Gredos; in the south there are the steep mountains of Toledo that separate the basin of the Tagus from that of the Guadiana; in the east lies a portion of the plateau of La Mancha, which extends farther south; and in the centre are wide plains that are well irrigated by the Tagus.

      Products of Toledo province include minerals (kaolin and other nonmetallic minerals commonly used in building construction), barley, wheat, oats, vegetable oils, wine, fruit, vegetables, and timber; sheep and pigs are also raised. Industry is concentrated in the provincial capital, Toledo city, and Talavera de la Reina. Food-processing, metalworking, and other manufacturing plants (primarily shoes and furniture) are found along the highway to Madrid. Area 5,934 square miles (15,370 square km). Pop. (2007 est.) 639,621.

Vicente Rodriguez
 

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Universalium. 2010.

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