syncope

syncopic /sin kop"ik/, syncopal, adj.
/sing"keuh pee', sin"-/, n.
1. Gram. the contraction of a word by omitting one or more sounds from the middle, as in the reduction of never to ne'er.
2. Pathol. brief loss of consciousness associated with transient cerebral anemia, as in heart block, sudden lowering of the blood pressure, etc.; fainting.
[1350-1400; ME < LL syncope < Gk synkopé a cutting short, equiv. to syn- SYN- + kop- (s. of kóptein to cut) + -e fem. n. suffix]

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Effect of temporary impairment of blood circulation to a part of the body.

It is often used as a synonym for fainting, which is loss of consciousness due to inadequate blood flow to the brain. Paleness, nausea, sweating, and then pupil dilation, yawning, deep rapid breathing, and rapid heartbeat usually precede it. It lasts from under a minute to several minutes and may be followed by headache, confusion, and a weak feeling. The cause may be physical (e.g., heart failure, low blood sugar) or emotional (e.g., fear, anxiety). Abnormal vagus or autonomic nerve response can cause fainting (without preceding symptoms) triggered by ordinary activities such as urination, swallowing, coughing, or standing up or by pressure on the pulse point in the neck. Local syncope is coldness and numbness in a small area, especially the fingers, from diminished blood flow.

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▪ medical disorder
      effect of temporary impairment of blood circulation to a part of the body. The term is most often used as a synonym for fainting, which is caused by insufficient blood flow to the brain as a result of a fall in blood pressure.

      Fainting tends to be preceded first by paleness, nausea, and sweating and then by dilatation of the pupils, yawning, deeper and more rapid breathing, and a rapid heartbeat. The faint usually lasts from a fraction of a minute to several minutes and may be followed by headache, confusion, nervousness, and a feeling of weakness. It is usually prompted by fear, anxiety, or pain.

      Carotid sinus syncope, sometimes called the tight-collar syndrome, also causes brief unconsciousness from impaired blood flow to the brain. Unlike the ordinary faint, this syncope is not preceded by pallor, nausea, and sweating. (The carotid sinus is a widened portion of the carotid artery where there are nerve endings sensitive to pressure; when they are stimulated, the heart is slowed, blood vessels dilate, and blood pressure consequently falls, causing, in turn, reduction in blood flow to the brain.) Pressure on the carotid sinuses by a tight collar, by turning the head to the side, in swallowing, or even in shaving the side of the neck over the carotid sinus may be sufficient to cause the syncope, or it may occur spontaneously. This syncope may be used diagnostically, since faintness upon massage of one carotid sinus may suggest a narrowed carotid or basilar artery on the opposite side of the neck.

      Syncope involving temporary unconsciousness may also be caused by any of a number of organic (physical) diseases or disorders, such as aortic stenosis, heart failure, and a low level of sugar in the blood.

      Local syncope is whitening, weakness, coldness, and numbness of a small area of the body, especially the fingers, as a result of diminished blood flow to the part. It is associated with Raynaud's disease (Raynaud syndrome).

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Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:
(in the middle of a word) / , ,


Look at other dictionaries:

  • syncope — Syncope …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • syncope — [ sɛ̃kɔp ] n. f. • sincope 1314; lat. syncopa; gr. sugkopê, de sugkoptein « briser » 1 ♦ Arrêt ou ralentissement marqué des battements du cœur, accompagné de la suspension de la respiration et de la perte de la conscience. ⇒ éblouissement,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • syncopé — syncope [ sɛ̃kɔp ] n. f. • sincope 1314; lat. syncopa; gr. sugkopê, de sugkoptein « briser » 1 ♦ Arrêt ou ralentissement marqué des battements du cœur, accompagné de la suspension de la respiration et de la perte de la conscience. ⇒ éblouissement …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Syncope — may refer to one of the following:* Syncope (medicine), loss of consciousness, fainting * Vasovagal syncope, a common form of fainting * Syncope (phonetics), the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word especially the loss of an… …   Wikipedia

  • syncopé — syncopé, ée (sin ko pé, pée) part. passé de syncoper. 1°   Qui a subi le retranchement d une lettre ou d une syllabe. Si, au lieu de je paierai, je prierai, on écrit je paîrai, je prîrai, etc. ces mots sont syncopés. 2°   Terme de musique. Note… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • syncope — SYNCOPE. s. f. Figure de grammaire, qui consiste dans le retranchement d une lettre ou d une syllabe au milieu d un mot. Dans le vieux langage quand on disoit, je donray, pour je donneray, je lairray, pour, je laisseray, c estoit une syncope.… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • Syncope — Syn co*pe, n. [L. syncope, syncopa, Gr. ? a cutting up, a syncope; akin to ? to beat together, to cut up, cut short, weavy; sy n with + ? to strike, cut.] 1. (Gram.) An elision or retrenchment of one or more letters or syllables from the middle… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • syncope — c.1400, from L.L. syncopen contraction of a word, acc. of syncope, from Gk. synkope, contraction of a word, originally a cutting off, from synkoptein to cut up, from syn together, thoroughly + koptein to cut. In pathology, failure of the heart s… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Syncŏpe — (gr.), s. Synkope …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • syncope — фр. [сэнко/п], англ. [си/нкэпи] Synkope нем. [синко/пэ] синкопа …   Словарь иностранных музыкальных терминов

  • syncope — ► NOUN 1) Medicine temporary loss of consciousness caused by low blood pressure. 2) Grammar the omission of sounds or letters from within a word, for example when library is pronounced . ORIGIN Greek sunkop , from sun together + koptein strike,… …   English terms dictionary

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