Susa

/sooh"seuh, -sah/, n.
a ruined city in W Iran: the capital of ancient Elam; palaces of Darius and Artaxerxes I; stele containing the Code of Hammurabi discovered here. Biblical name, Shushan.

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▪ ancient city, Iran
also called  Shushan , Greek  Susiane , modern  Shush 
 capital of Elam (Susiana) and administrative capital of the Achaemenian king Darius I and his successors from 522 BC. It was located at the foot of the Zagros Mountains near the bank of the Karkheh Kūr (Choaspes) River in the Khuzistan region of Iran.

      The archaeological site, identified in 1850 by W.K. Loftus, consists of four mounds. One held the citadel and was excavated (1897–1908) by Jacques de Morgan, who uncovered, among other objects, the obelisk of the Akkadian king Manishtusu, the stele of his successor Naram-Sin, and the code of Hammurabi (Hammurabi, Code of) of Babylon. A second mound to the east was the location of the palace of Darius I and was excavated (c. 1881) by Marcel Dieulafoy (Dieulafoy, Marcel-Auguste). A third mound to the south contained the royal Elamite city, while the fourth mound consisted of the poorer houses.

      The finest pottery was found in the lowest strata and belonged to two different civilizations, both Neolithic. Above the early strata were remains of Elamite and early Babylonian civilizations. In the upper portions of the mounds Achaemenian, Greek, Elamite, Parthian, and Sāsānian remains were found. Until sometime after the 14th century AD the city was a flourishing centre of a district known for silk, sugarcane, and oranges.

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Universalium. 2010.

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