solar prominence

prominence (def. 3).

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Arched stream of hot gas projecting from the Sun's surface into the chromosphere or corona.

Prominences can be hundreds of thousands of miles long and can be seen with the unaided eye during a total eclipse. They appear to lie along and are supported by loops in the Sun's magnetic field, where they may remain for days to months.

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      dense cloud of incandescent ionized gas projecting from the Sun's chromosphere into the corona. Prominences sometimes extend hundreds of thousands of kilometres above the Sun's chromosphere. Their causes are uncertain but probably involve magnetic forces.

      Prominences vary considerably in size, shape, and motion and are of two main types, active and quiescent. Active prominences erupt quickly and have lifetimes lasting from several minutes to a few hours. They are associated with sunspot groups and, like these, are correlated in numbers and activity with the solar cycle. Quiescent prominences tend to emerge smoothly and subside much more slowly, so they may be visible for several months. Prominences appear either as flame-coloured projections when the disk of the Sun is totally eclipsed or as dark ribbons (called filaments) when viewed through a spectroscope.

      Probably the first astronomer to describe prominences (1733) was Birger Vassenius of Göteborg, Sweden. In 1868 P.J.C. Janssen and J.N. Lockyer independently announced a method of observing prominences by spectroscope without waiting for an eclipse.

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Universalium. 2010.

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