/shay"keuhr/, n.
1. a person or thing that shakes.
2. a container with a perforated top from which a seasoning, condiment, sugar, flour, or the like is shaken onto food.
3. any of various containers for shaking beverages to mix the ingredients: a cocktail shaker.
4. a dredger or caster.
5. (cap.) a member of the Millennial Church, originating in England in the middle of the 18th century and brought to the U.S. in 1774, advocating celibacy, common ownership of property, and a strict and simple way of life: so called from their practice of shaking during religious services.
6. (cap.) noting or pertaining to a style of something produced by Shakers and characterized by simplicity of form, lack of ornamentation, fine craftsmanship, and functionality.
[1400-50; late ME; see SHAKE, -ER1]

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Member of the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, a celibate millenarian sect that established communal settlements in the U.S. in the 18th century.

Derived from a branch of radical English Quakers (see Society of Friends), the movement was brought to the U.S. in 1774 by Ann Lee, an illiterate textile worker whose followers accepted her as the second incarnation of Christ. The movement spread throughout New England from its base near Albany, N.Y., and later into Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana, eventually establishing 19 communities. Communities held property in common, observed celibacy, and pursued a life of productive labor. Though sometimes persecuted for their pacifism and for bizarre beliefs falsely attributed to them, Shakers won admiration for their model farms and orderly, prosperous communities. Their talent for simple, functional design led to numerous inventions and innovations (see Shaker furniture). The movement reached its height in the 1840s and thereafter gradually declined; today the lone remaining community is at Canterbury, N.H.

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▪ Protestant sect
 member of the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, a celibate millenarian group that established communal settlements in the United States in the 18th century. Based on the revelations of Ann Lee (Lee, Ann) and her vision of the heavenly kingdom to come, Shaker teaching emphasized simplicity, celibacy, and work. Shaker communities flourished in the mid-19th century and contributed a distinctive style of architecture, furniture, and handicraft to American culture. The communities declined in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

      The Shakers derived originally from a small branch of English Quakers founded by Jane and James Wardley in 1747. They may have adopted the French Camisards' ritual practices of shaking, shouting, dancing, whirling, and singing in tongues. The Shaker doctrine, as it came to be known in the United States, was formulated by Ann Lee (Lee, Ann), a textile worker in Manchester. “Mother Ann,” as she was known to her followers, had a troubled marriage and had suffered difficulties while pregnant (she had four children, all of whom died young), and in 1758 she converted to the “Shaking Quakers.” After enduring persecution and imprisonment for participation in noisy worship services, she had a series of revelations, after which she regarded herself—and was so regarded by her followers—as the female aspect of God's dual nature (e.g. male and female) and the second Incarnation of Christ. She developed an elaborate theology and established celibacy as the cardinal principle of the community.

      In 1774 Mother Ann came to America with eight disciples, having been charged by a new revelation to establish the millennial church in the New World. Settling in 1776 at Niskeyuna (now Watervliet), New York, the small group benefited from an independent revival movement that was sweeping the district, and within five years it grew to several thousand members.

      After Mother Ann's death (1784), the Shaker church came under the leadership of Elder Joseph Meacham and Eldress Lucy Wright. Together they worked out the distinctive pattern of Shaker social organization, which consisted of celibate communities of men and women living together in dormitory-style houses and holding all things in common. The first Shaker community, established at New Lebanon, New York, in 1787, retained leadership of the movement as it spread through New England and westward into Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana. By 1826, 18 Shaker villages had been set up in eight states.

      Although often persecuted for pacifism or for bizarre beliefs falsely attributed to them, the Shakers won admiration for their model farms, orderly and prosperous communities, and fair dealing with outsiders. Their industry and ingenuity produced numerous (usually unpatented) inventions, including, among other things, the screw propeller, babbitt metal, a rotary harrow, an automatic spring, a turbine waterwheel, a threshing machine, the circular saw, and the common clothespin. They were the first to package and market seeds and were once the largest producers of medicinal herbs in the United States.

      Shaker dances and songs are a genuine folk art, and the simple beauty, functionalism, and honest craftsmanship of their meetinghouses, barns, and artifacts have had a lasting influence on American design. The greatest example of such influence is Shaker furniture.

      The Shaker movement reached its height during the 1840s, when about 6,000 members were enrolled in the church. It later declined, however, because of changes in spiritual needs and the church's insistence on celibacy and its opposition to childbearing. In 1874 the society was advertising for members, emphasizing physical comfort as well as spiritual values. By 1905 there were only 1,000 members. At the turn of the 21st century there was one working Shaker village, Sabbathday Lake, near New Gloucester, Maine; it had fewer than 10 members.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Shaker — (von engl. to shake „rütteln, schütteln“) steht für Shaker (Barzubehör), ein Utensil zum Mixen von Cocktails Shaker (Religion), eine christliche Gemeinschaft in den USA Shaker (Musik), ein Musikinstrument elektrodynamischer Shaker, ein Testgerät… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • shaker — ► NOUN 1) a container used for mixing ingredients by shaking. 2) a container with a pierced top from which a powder is poured by shaking. 3) (Shaker) a member of an American Christian sect living simply in celibate mixed communities. [ORIGIN: so… …   English terms dictionary

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  • Shaker — Shak er, n. 1. A person or thing that shakes, or by means of which something is shaken. [1913 Webster] 2. One of a religious sect who do not marry, popularly so called from the movements of the members in dancing, which forms a part of their… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • shaker — (n.) mid 15c., one who or which shakes, aqgent noun from SHAKE (Cf. shake) (v.). Applied from 1640s (with capital initial) to various Christian sects whose devotional exercises often involved convulsions. The best known, the American based… …   Etymology dictionary

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