shad

/shad/, n., pl. (esp. collectively) shad, (esp. referring to two or more kinds or species) shads.
1. a deep-bodied herring, Alosa sapidissima, of Europe and North America, that migrates up streams to spawn, used for food.
2. any other fish of the genus Alosa or related genera.
3. any of several unrelated fishes.
[bef. 1050; OE sceadd (not recorded in ME)]

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Any of several saltwater food fishes of the herring family (Clupeidae) that swim up rivers to spawn.

Shad eggs (roe) are a delicacy in the U.S. Adult shad are toothless. The lower jaw of shad in the genus Alosa fits into a notch at the tip of the upper jaw. The American shad (A. sapidissima), an Atlantic fish introduced into the Pacific, is a migratory plankton eater and a good game fish. The Allis (or Allice) shad (A. alosa) of Europe is about 30 in. (75 cm) long and weighs about 8 lbs (3.6 kg). See also whitefish.

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▪ Clupeiform group
 any of several saltwater food fishes of the herring family (Clupeidae) that swim up rivers to spawn. Shad of the genus Alosa are rather deep bodied and have a notch in the upper jaw into which the tip of the lower fits. Young shad have small teeth, but the adults are toothless. The flesh of these fishes is considered very good to eat, though bony; the eggs, or roe, are a delicacy in the United States.

      The American shad (Alosa sapidissima), formerly found only on the Atlantic coast from Florida to Newfoundland, was introduced into the Pacific Ocean in 1871 and now ranges from San Diego to British Columbia. It is a migratory plankton eater and evidently enters deep water in fall. A good game fish, it may be 75 cm (30 inches) long. Young shad hatch in 6 to 15 days, enter the sea in fall, and mature in about three years.

      The Allis (or Allice) shad (A. alosa) of Europe is about 75 cm (30 inches) long and 3.6 kg (8 pounds) in weight. The twaite shad (A. finta) is smaller.

      Other fishes known as shad and having similar life cycles are those of the genera Caspialosa of the Black and Caspian seas, and Hilsa, which range from East Africa to China.

      The gizzard shads (Dorosoma), of both marine waters and freshwaters, have a muscular stomach and filamentous last dorsal fin rays. The Atlantic species (D. cepedianum), also called hickory shad and fall herring, ranges through the southern United States. Others are found in the Indo-Pacific and Australian waters. None is of particular economic value.

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Universalium. 2010.

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