Septuagint

Septuagintal, adj.
/sep"tooh euh jint', -tyooh-, sep"chooh-/, n.
the oldest Greek version of the Old Testament, traditionally said to have been translated by 70 or 72 Jewish scholars at the request of Ptolemy II: most scholars believe that only the Pentateuch was completed in the early part of the 3rd century B.C. and that the remaining books were translated in the next two centuries.
[1555-65; < L septuaginta seventy]

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Earliest extant Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures from the original Hebrew, presumably made for the use of the Jewish community in Egypt when Greek was the lingua franca.

The Pentateuch was translated near the middle of the 3rd century BC; the rest of the Hebrew scriptures were translated in the 2nd century BC. The name Septuagint was derived from a legend that 72 translators worked on the project. Its influence was far-reaching. The Septuagint rather than the original Hebrew Bible was the main basis for the Old Latin, Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Georgian, Slavonic, and some Arabic translations of the Bible.

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      the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew, presumably made for the use of the Jewish community in Egypt when Greek was the lingua franca throughout the region. Analysis of the language has established that the Torah, or Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testament), was translated near the middle of the 3rd century BC and that the rest of the Old Testament was translated in the 2nd century BC.

      The name Septuagint (from the Latin septuaginta, “70”) was derived later from the legend that there were 72 translators, 6 from each of the 12 tribes of Israel, who worked in separate cells, translating the whole, and in the end all their versions were identical. In fact there are large differences in style and usage between the Septuagint's translation of the Torah and its translations of the later books in the Old Testament. A tradition that translators were sent to Alexandria by Eleazar, the chief priest at Jerusalem, at the request of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285–246 BC), a patron of literature, first appeared in the Letter of Aristeas, an unreliable source.

      The language of much of the early Christian church was Greek, and it was in the Septuagint text that many early Christians located the prophecies they claimed were fulfilled by Christ. Jews considered this a misuse of Holy Scripture, and they stopped using the Septuagint. Its subsequent history lies within the Christian church.

      In the 3rd century AD Origen attempted to clear up copyists' errors that had crept into the text of the Septuagint, which by then varied widely from copy to copy. Other scholars also consulted the Hebrew text in order to make the Septuagint text more accurate. But it was the Septuagint, not the original Hebrew, that was the main basis for the Old Latin, Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Georgian, Slavonic, and part of the Arabic translations of the Old Testament. It has never ceased to be the standard version of the Old Testament in the Greek church, and from it Jerome began his translation of the Vulgate Old Testament.

      In addition to all the books of the Hebrew canon, the Septuagint under Christian auspices separated the minor prophets and some other books and added the extra books known to Protestants and Jews as apocryphal and to Roman Catholics as deuterocanonical. The Hebrew canon has three divisions: the Torah (Law), the Neviʾim (Prophets), and the Ketuvim (Writings). The Septuagint has four: law, history, poetry, and prophets, with the books of the Apocrypha inserted where appropriate. This division has continued in the Western church in most modern Bible translations, except that in Protestant versions the Apocrypha are either omitted or grouped separately.

      The text of the Septuagint is contained in a few early, but not necessarily reliable, manuscripts. The best known of these are the Codex Vaticanus (B) and the Codex Sinaiticus (S), both dating from the 4th century AD, and the Codex Alexandrinus (A) from the 5th century. There are also numerous earlier papyrus fragments and many later manuscripts. The first printed copy of the Septuagint was in the Complutensian Polyglot (1514–22).

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Septuagint — Sep tu*a*gint, n. [From L. septuaginta seventy.] A Greek version of the Old Testament; so called because it was believed to be the work of seventy (or rather of seventy two) translators. [1913 Webster] Note: The causes which produced it [the… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • SEPTUAGINT — SEPTUAGINT, the oldest Greek translation of the Bible. The designation Septuagint, from the Latin septuaginta, seventy, is based on the legend contained in the apocryphal letter of aristeas , according to which 72 elders of Israel, six from each… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Septuagint — (n.) Greek version of the Old Testament, 1633, from L.L. septuaginta interpretes seventy interpreters, from L. septuaginta seventy, from septem seven + ginta tens. So called in reference to the (false) tradition that the translation was done 3c.… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Septuagint — ► NOUN ▪ a Greek version of the Hebrew Bible (or Old Testament), including the Apocrypha, produced in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. ORIGIN from Latin septuaginta seventy , because of the tradition that it was produced by seventy two translators… …   English terms dictionary

  • Septuagint — [sep′to͞o ə jint, sep′tyo͞oə jint] n. [< L septuaginta, seventy: because of the ancient tradition that it was completed in 70 (or 72) days by 72 Palestinian Jews for Ptolemy II of Egypt] a translation into Greek of the Hebrew Scriptures made… …   English World dictionary

  • Septuagint — The Septuagint (, Josephus [Antiquities 12.57, 12.86] , or an elision. ...this name Septuagint appears to have been a fourth to fifth century development. ] means seventy in Latin and derives from a tradition that seventy (or seventy two) Jewish… …   Wikipedia

  • SEPTUAGINT —    a version, and the oldest of any known to us, of the Hebrew Scriptures in Greek, executed at Alexandria, in Egypt, by different translators at different periods, commencing with 280 B.C.; it is known as the Alexandria version, while the name… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Septuagint —    This term (from the Latin septuaginta, meaning seventy ) is the name given to the Greek translation of theHebrew Bible that was widely used among hellenized Jews at the time of Jesus. According to a popular legend, a group of seventy (or… …   Glossary of theological terms

  • Septuagint — noun Etymology: Late Latin Septuaginta, from Latin, seventy, irregular from septem seven + ginta (akin to Latin viginti twenty); from the approximate number of its translators more at seven, vigesimal Date: 1633 a Greek version of the Jewish… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Septuagint — noun An ancient translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, undertaken by Jews resident in Alexandria for the benefit of Jews who had forgotten their Hebrew (well before the birth of Jesus); abbreviated as LXX. The LXX is the untranslated… …   Wiktionary

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