sciatica

/suy at"i keuh/, n. Pathol.
1. pain and tenderness at some points of the sciatic nerve, usually caused by a prolapsed intervertebral disk; sciatic neuralgia.
2. any painful disorder extending from the hip down the back of the thigh and surrounding area.
[1400-50; < ML, n. use of fem. of sciaticus SCIATIC]

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Pain along the course of the sciatic nerve, from the lower back down each leg.

It often begins after lower back strain and is associated with spinal disk herniation. Pain is increased by coughing, sneezing, or bending the neck forward. Muscle relaxants, painkillers, and nerve stimulation are among the treatments, but surgery to relieve pressure on the nerve is needed if pain is disabling or nerve function is progressively disturbed (with leg weakness and loss of feeling). Rarely, sciatica arises from other causes of nerve compression (e.g., tumour) or disorders involving the peripheral nervous system.

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      pain along the sciatic nerve, which runs from the lower back down the legs. Sciatica often develops following an unusual movement or exertion that places a strain on the lumbar portion of the spine (vertebral column), where the nerve has its roots, either immediately or after an interval of several hours to a few days. Researchers have identified a genetic mutation that significantly increases the risk of the condition. The pain of sciatica may become more severe with coughing (cough), sneezing, and flexion of the neck. It is relieved by positions that minimize traction on the sciatic nerve; for this reason, a person with sciatica tends to walk with the affected leg bent at the knee and externally rotated at the hip.

      Sciatica is commonly associated with the rupture of a portion of an intervertebral disk into the spinal canal. It may also develop as a symptom of some local compressive lesion, or it may indicate a more generalized disorder involving the peripheral nerves. Most cases, including those in which the nerve is displaced by a protruding disk, can be treated effectively by bedrest on a firm mattress for several days to a few weeks. In some instances, however, surgical decompression of the nerve is necessary in order to prevent repeated attacks of disabling pain or to relieve weakness and sensory loss in the leg.

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Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • sciatică — sciátică s. f. (sil. sci a ), g. d. art. sciáticii; pl. sciátici Trimis de siveco, 10.08.2004. Sursa: Dicţionar ortografic  SCIÁTICĂ f. Stare patologică constând dintr o afecţiune a nervului sciatic, care se manifestă prin dureri în regiunea… …   Dicționar Român

  • sciatica — (n.) late 14c., from M.L. sciatica, in sciatica passio sciatic disease, from fem. of sciaticus sciatic, from L. ischiadicus of pain in the hip, from Gk. iskhiadikos, from iskhias (gen. iskhiados) pain in the hips, from iskhion hip joint …   Etymology dictionary

  • Sciatica — Sci*at i*ca, n. [NL.] (Med.) Neuralgia of the sciatic nerve, an affection characterized by paroxysmal attacks of pain in the buttock, back of the thigh, or in the leg or foot, following the course of the branches of the sciatic nerve. The name is …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • sciatica — / ʃatika/ s.f. [der. di sciatico ]. (med.) [infiammazione del nervo ischiatico] ▶◀ ischialgia, sciatalgia …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • sciatica — ► NOUN ▪ pain affecting the back, hip, and outer side of the leg, caused by compression of a spinal nerve root in the lower back …   English terms dictionary

  • sciatica — [sī at′i kə] n. [ME < ML < sciaticus] any painful condition in the region of the hip and thigh; esp., neuritis of the long nerve (sciatic nerve) passing down the back of the thigh …   English World dictionary

  • Sciatica — Infobox Disease Name = Sciatica Caption = Left gluteal region, showing surface markings for arteries and sciatic nerve. DiseasesDB = ICD10 = ICD10|M|54|3|m|50 ICD10|M|54|4|m|50 ICD9 = ICD9|724.3 ICDO = OMIM = MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = emerg… …   Wikipedia

  • Sciatica — Pain resulting from irritation of the sciatic nerve, typically felt from the low back to behind the thigh and radiating down below the knee. While sciatica can result from a herniated disc directly pressing on the nerve, any cause of irritation… …   Medical dictionary

  • sciatica — noun pain affecting the back, hip, and outer side of the leg, caused by compression of a spinal nerve root in the lower back. Origin ME: from late L. sciatica (passio) (affliction) of sciatica (see sciatic) …   English new terms dictionary

  • sciatica — Ischiadic Is chi*ad ic ([i^]s k[i^]*[a^]d [i^]k), a. [L. ischiadicus, Gr. ischiadoko s, fr. ischi on the hip joint, hip or loin. Cf. {Sciatic}.] (Anat.) Ischial. [R.] [1913 Webster] {Ischiadic passion} or {Ischiadic disease} (Med.), a rheumatic… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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