saturation

/sach'euh ray"sheuhn/, n.
1. the act or process of saturating.
2. the state of being saturated.
3. Meteorol. a condition in the atmosphere corresponding to 100 percent relative humidity.
4. the degree of chroma or purity of a color; the degree of freedom from admixture with white.
5. Magnetism. the state of maximum magnetization of a ferromagnetic material.
[1545-55; < LL saturation- (s. of saturatio) a filling, equiv. to saturat(us) (see SATURATE) + -ion- -ION]

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State of an organic compound in which all its carbon atoms are linked by single covalent bonds.

Saturation also means the state of a solution or vapour (see vaporization) in which it has the highest possible concentration of the dissolved or vaporized material at a given pressure and temperature. Though it is sometimes possible to bring about supersaturation (a concentration exceeding the equilibrium value), such solutions or vapours are unstable and spontaneously revert to the saturated state, accompanied by the transformation of the excess material to the solid or liquid form (precipitation). See also fatty acid; hydrogenation.

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▪ chemistry and physics
      any of several physical or chemical conditions defined by the existence of an equilibrium between pairs of opposing forces or of an exact balance of the rates of opposing processes. Common examples include the state of a solution left in contact with the pure undissolved solute until no further increase in the concentration of the solution occurs, and the state of a vapour similarly left in contact with the pure solid or liquid form of the substance. In the first example, the solution is saturated when the rate at which the pure substance dissolves in the solvent to enter the solution is exactly equal to the rate at which the dissolved substance leaves the solution (e.g., by crystallizing). In the second example, the rate at which the pure condensed (liquid or solid) material vaporizes is precisely that at which the vapour condenses.

      A saturated solution or vapour contains the largest concentration of the dissolved or vaporized material attainable under given conditions of pressure and temperature. Although it is possible, in certain circumstances, to bring about supersaturation (a state in which the concentration exceeds the equilibrium value), such solutions or vapours are unstable and spontaneously revert to the saturated state.

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Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • saturation — [ satyrasjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1748; « satiété » 1513; bas lat. saturatio 1 ♦ Sc. Action de saturer; état de ce qui est saturé. ♢ Action de dissoudre dans un liquide la masse maximale d une substance à une température et sous une pression déterminées;… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Saturation — or saturated generally means thoroughly full , while unsaturated means less than full. These terms may be related to: * Dew point, which is a temperature that occurs when atmospheric humidity reaches 100% and the air can hold no more moisture *… …   Wikipedia

  • Saturation — Sat u*ra tion, n. [L. saturatio: cf. F. saturation.] 1. The act of saturating, or the state of being saturating; complete penetration or impregnation. [1913 Webster] 2. (Chem.) The act, process, or result of saturating a substance, or of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • saturation — (n.) 1650s, from L.L. saturationem, noun of action from pp. stem of saturare (see SATURATE (Cf. saturate)). Saturation bombing is from 1942, first in reference to Allied air raid on Cologne …   Etymology dictionary

  • saturation — ► NOUN 1) the action of saturating or the state of being saturated. 2) (before another noun ) to the fullest extent: saturation bombing …   English terms dictionary

  • Saturation — (v. lat.), so v.w. Sättigung 3) u. 4) …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Saturation — (lat.), soviel wie Sättigung (s. Sättigen); besonders in der Zuckerfabrikation (auch Karbonation) die Befreiung des mit Kalk geschiedenen Rübensaftes von überschüssigem Kalk durch Kohlensäure. Als Arzneiform eine mit einer Säure neutralisierte… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Saturation — Saturatiōn (lat.), Sättigung (s.d.); pharmazeutisch mit Kohlensäure gesättigte Salzlösungen, die durch Zusatz von Alkalikarbonaten zu Säurelösungen hergestellt werden. Bekannteste S. der Riversche Trank …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • saturation — index maximum (amplitude), osmosis, plethora, sufficiency, surfeit Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • saturation — [sach΄ə rā′shən] n. [LL saturatio] 1. a saturating or being saturated 2. the degree of purity of a color, as measured by its freedom from mixture with white; intensity of hue 3. the condition of a magnetic substance that has been magnetized to… …   English World dictionary

  • saturation — (sa tu ra sion) s. f. 1°   Terme de chimie. Le terme où, les affinités réciproques des deux principes d un corps binaire étant satisfaites, aucun des deux principes n est plus susceptible de s unir avec une nouvelle quantité de l autre. La… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

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