saccharin

/sak"euhr in/, n. Chem.
a white, crystalline, slightly water-soluble powder, C7H5NO3S, produced synthetically, which in dilute solution is 500 times as sweet as sugar: its soluble sodium salt is used as a noncaloric sugar substitute in the manufacture of syrups, foods, and beverages. Also called benzosulfimide, gluside.
[1875-80; SACCHAR- + -IN2]

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Synthetic organic compound, C7H5NSO3, that is 200–700 times as sweet as cane sugar.

The sodium or calcium salt of saccharin is widely used as a diet sweetener. Though approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory bodies around the world, its safety is controversial because it appears to be a weak carcinogen. See also aspartame.

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also called  Ortho-sulfobenzoic Acid Imide,  

      organic compound employed as a non-nutritive sweetening agent. It occurs as insoluble saccharin or in the form of various salts, primarily sodium and calcium. Saccharin has about 200–700 times the sweetening power of granulated sugar and has a slightly bitter and metallic aftertaste. For table use, it is sold as 1/4-, 1/2-, or 1-grain pellets of the salts, a 1/4-grain pellet being the equivalent of a level teaspoon of sugar.

      Saccharin was discovered by the chemists Ira Remsen (Remsen, Ira) and Constantin Fahlberg in 1879, while they were investigating the oxidation of o-toluenesulfonamide. Fahlberg noticed an unaccountable sweet taste to his food and found that this sweetness was present on his hands and arms, despite his having washed thoroughly after leaving the laboratory. Checking over his laboratory apparatus by taste tests, Fahlberg was led to the discovery of the source of this sweetness—saccharin. Saccharin became the first commercially available artificial sweetener. It is still made by the oxidation of o-toluenesulfonamide, as well as from phthalic anhydride.

      Insoluble saccharin is a white crystal that melts at 228.8° to 229.7° C (443.8° to 445.5° F). Sodium and calcium saccharins are white crystalline powders that are very soluble in water. Saccharin is stable in a pH range of 2 to 7 and at temperatures up to 150° C (302° F). It has no caloric value and does not promote tooth decay. It is not metabolized by the body and is excreted unchanged. Saccharin is widely used in the diets of diabetics and others who must avoid sugar intake. It is also extensively employed in diet soft drinks and other low-calorie foods, and it is useful in foods and pharmaceuticals in which the presence of sugar might lead to spoilage.

      In toxicological studies, saccharin has been shown to induce a greater incidence of bladder cancer in rats that have been fed the sweetener at high levels (i.e., 5 to 7.5 percent of the diet). At the same time, epidemiological studies have failed to show a link between human bladder cancer and the use of saccharin at normal levels, and the sweetener is approved for addition to foods in most countries of the world.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Saccharin — (Anhydrosulfaminbenzoesäure, Benzoesäuresulfinid), das Imid der o Sulfobenzoesäure, jener von J. Remsen und C. Fahlberg entdeckte Süßstoff, Prismen vom Schmelzpunkt 220°, der etwa 500mal süßer als Rohrzucker ist und in großen Mengen technisch… …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • saccharin — ● saccharin, saccharine adjectif De la nature du sucre. Relatif au sucre, à sa fabrication. ⇒SACCHARIN, INE, adj. A. CHIM. Qui est de la nature du sucre, qui en contient. Richesse saccharine des betteraves, des racines; acide saccharin. Les… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Saccharīn — (Orthosulfamidobenzoesäureanhydrid, Benzoesäuresulfinid) C7H5NSO3 oder wird aus dem Toluol des Steinkohlenteers dargestellt und bildet farb und geruchlose kleine Nadeln, löst sich schwer in Wasser, leichter in Alkohol und Äther und schmilzt bei… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • saccharin — saccharin, ine (sa kka rin, ri in ) adj. 1°   Qui contient du sucre, qui en a les caractères. La richesse saccharine des betteraves. •   Lorsque la betterave a terminé sa végétation saccharine, si je puis m exprimer ainsi, il se forme du nitrate… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré

  • saccharin — saccharin, saccharine Saccharin is a noun denoting a sugar substitute, and saccharine is an adjective meaning (literally) ‘sugary’ or (figuratively) ‘unpleasantly over polite or sentimental’ …   Modern English usage

  • Saccharin — Sac cha*rin (s[a^]k k[.a]*r[i^]n), n. [F., from L. saccharon sugar.] (Chem.) A bitter white crystalline substance obtained from the saccharinates and regarded as the lactone of saccharinic acid; so called because formerly supposed to be isomeric… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Saccharin — Saccharīn, Saccharinōl, Saccharinōse, Saccharōl, aus Orthotoluolsulfosäure hergestellter Süßstoff, weißes Kristallpulver, 500mal so süß wie Zucker, in Wasser wenig löslich, leichter in Alkohol; das Natriumsalz (leichtlösliches S.) ist 450mal so… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • saccharin — (n.) white crystalline compound used as a sugar substitute, 1885, from German, coined by chemist C. Fahlberg, 1879, who discovered it by accident, from L. saccharon (see SACCHARINE (Cf. saccharine)). Marketed from 1887 as saccharine …   Etymology dictionary

  • saccharin — ► NOUN ▪ a sweet tasting synthetic compound used as a low calorie substitute for sugar. ORIGIN Greek sakkharon sugar …   English terms dictionary

  • saccharin — ☆ saccharin [sak′ə rin΄] n. [so named (1879) by its discoverers, I. Remsen & C. Fahlberg, U.S. chemists < ModL saccharum, sugar < L < Gr sakcharon, ult. < Sans śarkarā, pebble, sugar (> SUGAR) + IN ] a white, crystalline coal tar… …   English World dictionary

  • Saccharin — Chembox new Reference= [ Merck Index , 11th Edition, 8282.] ImageFile=Saccharin 2D skeletal.png ImageSize=160px ImageFile1=Saccharin 3D balls.png ImageSize1=200px IUPACName=1,1 Dioxo 1,2 benzothiazol 3 one OtherNames= Benzoic sulfinide E954… …   Wikipedia

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