/raynj/, n., adj., v., ranged, ranging.
1. the extent to which or the limits between which variation is possible: the range of steel prices; a wide range of styles.
2. the extent or scope of the operation or action of something: within range of vision.
3. the distance to which a projectile is or may be sent by a weapon.
4. the distance of the target from the weapon.
5. an area equipped with targets for practice in shooting weapons: a rifle range.
6. an area used for flight-testing missiles.
7. the distance of something to be located from some point of operation, as in sound ranging.
8. the distance that can be covered by an aircraft, ship, or other vehicle, carrying a normal load without refueling.
9. Statistics. the difference between the largest and smallest values in a statistical distribution.
10. a continuous course of masonry of the same height from end to end.
11. Music. compass (def. 4).
12. Survey.
a. the horizontal direction or extension of a survey line established by two or more marked points.
b. (in U.S. public-land surveys) one of a series of divisions numbered east or west from the principal meridian of the survey and consisting of a row of townships, each six miles square, that are numbered north or south from a base line.
13. Navig. a line established by markers or lights on shore for the location of soundings.
14. a rank, class, or order: in the higher ranges of society.
15. a row, line, or series, as of persons or things.
16. an act of ranging or moving around, as over an area or region.
17. Also called rangeland. an area or tract that is or may be ranged over, esp. an open region for the grazing of livestock.
18. the region over which a population or species is distributed: the range of the Baltimore oriole.
19. Math. the set of all values attained by a given function throughout its domain.
20. a chain of mountains forming a single system: the Catskill Range.
21. a large portable or stationary cooking stove having burners built into the top surface and containing one or more ovens.
22. Physics. the maximum distance that a charged particle, as a proton, can penetrate a given medium and still maintain sufficient kinetic energy to produce ionization in the medium.
23. Naut.
a. a large cleat for securing various lines, esp. the tacks and sheets of courses.
b. a length of anchor cable laid on deck.
24. in range, (of two or more objects observed from a vessel) located one directly behind the other.
25. working or grazing on a range: range horses; range animals like steer and sheep.
26. to draw up or arrange (persons or things) in rows or lines or in a specific position, company, or group: The sergeant ranged the troops in columns of six across.
27. to place or arrange systematically; set in order; dispose: The members of the cast were ranged in their proper places on stage.
28. to place in a particular class; classify: They ranged themselves with the liberals.
29. to make straight, level, or even, as lines of type.
30. to pass over or through (an area or region) in all directions, as in exploring or searching: They ranged the entire countryside.
31. to pasture (cattle) on a range.
32. to direct or train, as a telescope, upon an object.
33. to obtain the range of (something aimed at or to be located).
34. Naut. to lay out (an anchor cable) so that the anchor may descend smoothly.
35. to vary within certain limits: prices ranging from $5 to $10.
36. to have a certain variety of things somehow related: emotions ranging from smugness to despair.
37. to move around or through a region in all directions, as people or animals.
38. to rove, roam, or wander: The talk ranged over a variety of subjects.
39. to stretch out or extend in a line, as things: shabby houses ranged along the road.
40. to extend, run, or go in a certain direction: a boundary ranging from east and west.
41. to lie or extend in the same line or plane, as one thing with another or others.
42. to take up a position in a line or in order.
43. to extend, be found, or occur over an area or throughout a period, as an animal or plant.
44. to have a specified range, as a gun, missile, etc.
45. to find the range, as of something aimed at or to be located.
46. Naut. (of an anchored vessel) to swerve or sheer (often fol. by about).
[1350-1400; (n.) ME < OF renge row, deriv. of renc line; see RANK1; (v.) ME rangen < MF ranger, OF rengier, deriv. of renc]
Syn. 1. sweep, reach. RANGE, COMPASS, LATITUDE, SCOPE refer to extent or breadth. RANGE emphasizes extent and diversity: the range of one's interests. COMPASS suggests definite limits: within the compass of one's mind. LATITUDE emphasizes the idea of freedom from narrow confines, thus breadth or extent: granted latitude of action. SCOPE suggests great freedom but a proper limit: the scope of one's activities; the scope of one's obligations. 14. kind, sort. 15. tier, file. 26. align, rank. 27. array. 37. See roam. 39. lie.

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(as used in expressions)
long range navigation
intermediate range nuclear weapons

* * *

▪ particle radiation
      in radioactivity, the distance that a particle travels from its source through matter. The range depends upon the type of particle, its original energy of motion (kinetic energy), the medium through which it travels, and the particular way in which range is further defined. Range applies especially to charged particles, such as electrons and alpha particles. Charged particles are slowed down chiefly because their energy of motion is dissipated in forcing electrons out of the atoms of the absorbing medium (ionization) or in promoting these electrons to higher energy levels within the atoms (excitation).

      Alpha particles (alpha particle), in particular, travel in nearly straight paths because they are thousands of times heavier than the atomic electrons (electron) to which they gradually lose energy. Their range is usually measured from the source in a straight line to the point at which ionization ceases to occur. The range of electrons (beta particles) is measured differently because radiated electrons are deflected into erratic paths by the electrons in the atoms of the absorbing medium. The range of electrons may be taken as the greatest distance of penetration in a given direction, or the minimum thickness of the medium required to stop all electrons. A slight spread of values in the range that given charged particles of the same initial energy travel in a given kind of matter is called straggling. The loss of energy of the particle, because it occurs in a series of discrete amounts, fluctuates statistically about a mean value, equivalent to a most probable range. Thus, alpha particles and other charged particles of the same initial energy show a slight random variation in their ranges.

      In a given medium, electrons have a greater range than alpha particles of the same energy and are, therefore, more penetrating. The greater the original energy of the particle, the longer is its range.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.


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