racemate

/ray see"mayt, reuh-/, n. Chem.
1. a salt or ester of racemic acid.
2. a racemic compound.
[1825-35; RACEM(IC ACID) + -ATE2]

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Mixture of equal quantities of two enantiomers, substances whose molecular structures are mirror images of one another (see isomer).

The two enantiomers rotate polarized light through opposite angles, canceling each other out so that the racemic mixture has no optical activity. Racemization is the conversion of an optically active form of a compound into a racemic mixture; reversing this process is called resolution.

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      a mixture of equal quantities of two enantiomorphs, or substances that have dissymmetric molecular structures that are mirror images of one another. Each enantiomorph rotates the plane of polarization of plane-polarized light through a characteristic angle, but, because the rotatory effect of each component exactly cancels that of the other, the racemic mixture is optically inactive. The name is derived from racemic acid, the first example of such a substance to be carefully studied. Racemic acid, or, more properly, racemic tartaric acid, is a mixture of equal amounts of dextrorotatory and levorotatory tartaric acids; it is customarily designated dl- or (±)-tartaric acid.

      The process by which an optically active substance is transformed into the corresponding racemic modification is known as racemization; the converse process, by which a racemic modification is separated into the two enantiomorphs, is known as resolution. The ease with which an optically active compound can be racemized varies within wide limits. For example, racemization of an optically active paraffin hydrocarbon is extremely difficult, but that of lactic acid is easily accomplished. In all instances, however, it is presumed to occur as a result of a reversible transformation of the dissymmetric, optically active substance into an unstable, symmetric one incapable of optical activity; the reverse transformation back from this inactive intermediate is as likely to give one active enantiomorph as the other, so that an inactive mixture results. See also enantiomorph.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • racémate — [ʀasemat] n. m. ÉTYM. 1869, in Littré; du rad. de racémique, et suff. ate. ❖ ♦ Chim. Sel de l acide racémique. || « On précipitera l acide tartrique sous forme de racémate de calcium » (J. Carles, la Chimie du vin, p. 120) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Racemate — Ra*ce mate (r[.a]*s[=e] m[asl]t), n. (Chem.) A salt of racemic acid. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Racemate — Racémate Anglicisme qui doit être remplacé par racémique. Mélange en proportions égales des énantiomères lévogyre et dextrogyre d une molécule chirale. Le pouvoir rotatoire de ses deux composants s annulant, un mélange racémique ne dévie pas le… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Racemate — Racemate, so v.w. Uvate, s.u. Traubensäure …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Racemate — Racemate, Salze der Traubensäure, z. B. Natriumracemat, soviel wie traubensaures Natron …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • racemate — [rā sē′māt, rəsē′māt; ras′ə māt΄] n. 1. a salt or ester of racemic acid 2. a racemic salt …   English World dictionary

  • racemate — racematas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Optiškai neaktyvus enantiomerų lygių dalių mišinys. atitikmenys: angl. racemate; racemic compound; racemic form; racemic mixture rus. рацемат; рацемическая смесь; рацемическая форма; рацемическое… …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • racemate — noun Date: 1907 a racemic compound or mixture …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Racémate — Anglicisme qui doit être remplacé par racémique. Mélange en proportions égales des énantiomères lévogyre et dextrogyre d une molécule chirale. Le pouvoir rotatoire de ses deux composants s annulant, un mélange racémique ne dévie pas le plan de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • racemate — noun a) a racemic mixture b) any salt or ester of racemic acid …   Wiktionary

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