- /chin/, n. Pinyin.Ch'in.
* * *(as used in expressions)
* * *Wade-Giles romanization ch'in also called guqin (Chinese “ancient zither”) or qixianqin (Chinese “seven-stringed zither”)fretless Chinese board zither with seven strings. Traditionally the body of the qin was of a length that represented the 365 days of the year (3 chi [a chi is a Chinese foot], 6 cun [a cun is a Chinese inch, one-tenth of a chi], and 5 fen [a fen is one-tenth of a Chinese inch] long). The qin is usually lacquered and is inlaid with 13 dots (hui) of ivory, jade, or mother-of-pearl that indicate pitch positions, primarily on the upper melodic string. The silk strings, which are of graduated thickness, are tuned pentatonically, and the thickest string is farthest from the player's body. They are stretched over a narrow and slightly convex sound board, usually made of paulownia wood (Sterculia plantanifolia); the underside of the sound board is closed by a flat base, usually made of zi (Chinese catalpa, Catalpa kaempferi). The underside of the base has two sound holes, the larger of which is called the “dragon pond” (longchi), and the smaller of which is called the “phoenix pool” (fengzhao). The qin's high bridge near the wide end of the soundboard is called the “great mountain” (yueshan), the low bridge at the narrow end is called the “dragon's gums” (longyin), and the two pegs for fastening the strings are called the “goose feet” (yanzhu). Each qin is given a unique name, which is engraved on the back side of the instrument, along with poems and the owner's (or owners') seals.The instrument's notation indicates pitches as well as special hand movements. Both plucked and stopped strings and their harmonics are used, and only the bare fingers are used on the strings. Being for centuries the favoured instrument of the elite class, the qin is rich with literary connotations and with symbolism. For example, the top and the bottom of the instrument represent heaven and earth respectively. The 13 inlays mentioned above represent the 12 months of the year and the intercalary month added every few years to synchronize the lunar calendar with the solar calendar.In performance the qin symbolizes the union of heaven, earth, and humankind. This symbolism is further echoed in the three types of sound ( timbre) that are produced: sanyin, an open sound, represents earth; fanyin, harmonics, represent heaven; and anyin, a stopped sound, represents humans. There are 7 open sounds (7 strings), 91 harmonics, and 147 stopped sounds with a total range of four octaves plus two pitches. There are more than 30 techniques employed in performance—each with its own descriptive term—including yin (slow trill), rou (quick trill), chuo (upward portamento [pitch bending]) and zhu (downward portamento). Qin notation is written in tablature. There are more than 100 tablature manuals extant, containing more than 3,000 pieces of music. The earliest is a copy of the textual score of Jieshidiao youlan (“Secluded Orchid in Jieshi Mode”) from the Tang dynasty (618–907), which was handed down by Qiu Ming (494–590).The history of the qin dates back to legendary times. It was mentioned in oracle-bone inscriptions and in the Shijing (“Classic of Poetry”), the first anthology of Chinese poetry. Although earlier types exist, they vary as to the number of strings and hui do not seem to have been present. The design of the qin was not more or less uniform until the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220 AD). In his poem "Qinfu" (“Ode to the Qin”), Ji Kang (224–263) mentions hui several times, which would indicate that qin design had been standardized by that time.This ancient instrument has always been treasured as a symbol of high culture by Chinese intellectuals and Confucianists, and it is often seen in landscapes with sages viewing some scenic beauty. The well-educated person was expected to be skilled in four arts: qi (chess, or probably go), shu (calligraphy), hua (brush painting), and the playing of the qin.Additional ReadingDavid Mingyue Liang, The Chinese Ch'in: Its History and Music (1972); Robert Hans van Gulik, The Lore of the Chinese Lute: An Essay in the Ideology of the Ch'in, new ed. (1969).
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Qin — can refer to: Contents 1 Chinese dynasties and states 2 People in history 3 People 4 Surnames 5 … Wikipedia
Qin — bezeichnet: den Namen einer chinesischen Dynastie; siehe Qin Dynastie den Namen eines chinesischen Königreiches während der Zeit der Streitenden Reiche; siehe Qin (Staat) ein chinesisches Saiteninstrument; siehe Qin (Instrument) den Kreis Qin… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Qin He — Qin HeVorlage:Infobox Fluss/GKZ fehlt Lage Provinz Shanxi, VR China Flusssystem Gelber FlussVorlage:Infobox Fluss/FLUSSSYSTEM falsch Vorlage:Infobox Fluss/ABFLUSSWEG fehlt … Deutsch Wikipedia
Qin Yi — (chinesisch 秦怡) (* 1922 in Shanghai) ist eine chinesische Film und Theaterschauspielerin. In den 1940er und 50er Jahren gehörte sie zu den bekanntesten Darstellerinnen ihres Landes. Sie trat in 35 Spielfilmen, 30 Bühnenstücken und acht… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Qín Mù — Qín Mù, (chin. 秦牧) (* 19. August 1919 in Hongkong; † 14. Oktober 2002 in Guǎngzhōu an Herzversagen), bedeutender chinesischer Schriftsteller und Essayist. Er verfasste eine Vielzahl an Essays, Romanen, Theaterstücken sowie Arbeiten zur… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Qin Yu — (秦裕) (b. 1963) was briefly the chief of Baoshan District in Shanghai, China. He was removed from office on August 29, 2006 as part of a widening probe into corruption involving the mishandling of funds from Shanghai s municipal pension system.… … Wikipedia
qin — ● qin nom masculin (mot chinois) Cithare chinoise, sur table en bois de wutong et à cordes de soie. Qin ou Ts in dynastie chinoise (221 206 av. J. C.) … Encyclopédie Universelle
Qin He — (born December 14, 1984 in Guangxi) is a male Chinese freestyle wrestler who wil compete at the 2008 Summer Olympics.He personal best was coming 5th at the 2007 World Championships 60kg freestyle.External links*… … Wikipedia
Qin Mu — Qín Mù, (chin. 秦牧) (* 19. August 1919 in Hongkong; † 14. Oktober 1992 in Guǎngzhōu an Herzversagen), ist ein bedeutender chinesischer Schriftsteller und Essayist. Er verfasste eine Vielzahl an Essays, Romanen, Theaterstücken sowie Arbeiten zur… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Qin Qi — (? 200) : Officier de Xiahou Dun. Protège la cinquième porte menant à la rivière Huang depuis le palais de Cao Cao. Il est le dernier officier à tenter d empêcher la fuite de Guan Yu, mais ne peut visiblement pas rivaliser avec le grand… … Wikipédia en Français
qin — qin·tar; … English syllables