province

/prov"ins/, n.
1. an administrative division or unit of a country.
2. the provinces,
a. the parts of a country outside of the capital or the largest cities.
b. (in England) all parts of the country outside of London.
3. a country, territory, district, or region.
5. a department or branch of learning or activity: the province of mathematics.
6. sphere or field of activity or authority, as of a person; office, function, or business: Such decisions do not lie within his province.
7. a major subdivision of British India.
8. an ecclesiastical territorial division, as that within which an archbishop or a metropolitan exercises jurisdiction.
9. Hist.
a. any of the North American colonies now forming major administrative divisions of Canada.
b. any of certain colonies of Great Britain which are now part of the U.S.
10. Rom. Hist. a country or territory outside of Italy, brought under the ancient Roman dominion and administered by a governor sent from Rome.
11. Mining. an individual mineral-producing area.
[1300-50; ME < MF < L provincia province, official charge]
Syn. 5. area.

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▪ ancient Roman government
Latin  Provincia,  plural  Provinciae,  

      in Roman antiquity, a territorial subdivision of the Roman Empire—specifically, the sphere of action and authority of a Roman magistrate who held the imperium, or executive power. The name was at first applied to territories both in Italy and wherever else a Roman official exercised authority in the name of the Roman state. Later the name implied Roman possessions outside Italy from which tribute was required.

      Under the republic (c. 509–31 BC), when each province was formed, the Senate drew up a special charter, or lex provinciae (provincial law), based on the report of the general who had conquered the province. This charter defined the province's territorial limits and the number of towns that it included, as well as the rights and duties of the provincials, especially the kind and amount of tribute that they had to pay. The Senate also appointed a Roman magistrate to rule each province, together with a quaestor and up to three legati (lieutenants). Assisted by his staff, the governor exercised complete control over his province. The virtual autonomy of provincial governors in republican times often tempted them to widespread extortion and other abuses against provincials. Provincial administrative reforms at the beginnings of the empire, however, provided for a division of powers, and procurators were appointed to look after provincial finances. Upon assuming the government of a province, the governor would issue an edict to supplement the lex provinciae; during his tenure he was not bound by the edicts of his predecessors. Governors were either consuls (consul) or praetors (praetor), and these were called proconsuls and propraetors when their powers were extended for more than a year. The Senate decided which provinces would be governed by consuls and which by praetors. The praetors and consuls would then draw lots to determine their particular provinces.

      Under the empire (from 27 BC), provinces were divided into two classes: senatorial provinces were governed by former consuls and former praetors, both called proconsuls, whose term was annual; imperial provinces were governed by representatives of the emperor (called propraetorian legates), who served indefinitely. Roman provincial government allowed for considerable local autonomy. Roman officials were few and, particularly in the eastern provinces, relied heavily upon locally recognized leaders if they were friendly to Rome. Augustus, who reigned from 27 BC to AD 14, initiated for the first time a general policy regarding governing practices to provide efficient and just administration.

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Universalium. 2010.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Province — Prov ince, n. [F., fr. L. provincia; prob. fr. pro before, for + the root of vincere to conquer. See {Victor}.] 1. (Roman Hist.) A country or region, more or less remote from the city of Rome, brought under the Roman government; a conquered… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • PROVINCE — s. f. Étendue de pays qui fait partie d un État, et qui comprend plusieurs villes, bourgs, villages, etc., pour l ordinaire sous un même gouvernement. La France était divisée en provinces. La province de Guienne, de Normandie, etc. Les provinces… …   Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, 7eme edition (1835)

  • PROVINCE — n. f. étendue de pays qui fait partie d’un état et qui comprend plusieurs villes, bourgs, villages, etc., sous un même gouvernement. La France était divisée en provinces. La province de Guyenne, de Normandie, etc. Les provinces d’un royaume. Ce… …   Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, 8eme edition (1935)

  • Province — A province is a territorial unit, almost always an administrative division. Roman provincesThe word is attested in English since c.1330, deriving from Old French province (13th c.), which comes from the Roman word provincia , which referred to… …   Wikipedia

  • province — noun Etymology: Middle English, from Anglo French, from Latin provincia Date: 14th century 1. a. a country or region brought under the control of the ancient Roman government b. an administrative district or division of a country c. plural all of …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Province of New Hampshire — British colony 1680–1686 1692–1783 …   Wikipedia

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