proteolytic /proh'tee euh lit"ik/, adj.
/proh'tee ol"euh sis/, n. Biochem.
the breaking down of proteins into simpler compounds, as in digestion.
[1875-80; proteo- (comb. form repr. PROTEIN) + -LYSIS]

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Process in which a protein is broken down partially, into peptides, or completely, into amino acids, by proteolytic enzymes, present in bacteria and in plants but most abundant in animals.

Proteins in food are attacked in the stomach by pepsin and in the small intestine mainly by trypsin and chymotrypsin from the pancreas. Proteolytic enzymes are secreted as zymogens, which are themselves converted by proteolysis to their active forms. Many other zymogens or precursors undergo proteolysis to form active enzymes or proteins (e.g., fibrinogen to fibrin). In cells, proteolytic degradation of old proteins is part of cellular maintenance.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Proteolysis — Pro te*ol y*sis, n. [NL. See {Proteolytic}.] (Physiol. Chem.) The digestion or dissolving of proteid matter by proteolytic ferments. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • proteolysis — [prōt΄ē äl′ə sis] n. [ModL: see PROTEIN & LYSIS] Biochem. the breaking down of proteins, as by gastric juices, to form simpler substances proteolytic [prōt΄ēō lit′ik] adj …   English World dictionary

  • proteolysis — Cleavage of proteins by proteases. Limited proteolysis occurs where proteins are functionally modified (activated in the case of zymogens) by highly specific proteases …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • proteolysis — proteolizė statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Hidrolizinis baltymų skaidymas iki aminorūgščių. atitikmenys: angl. proteolysis rus. протеолиз …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • proteolysis — noun Etymology: New Latin Date: 1880 the hydrolysis of proteins or peptides with formation of simpler and soluble products …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • proteolysis — noun The hydrolysis of proteins into peptides and amino acids; especially as part of the digestion of food …   Wiktionary

  • proteolysis — The decomposition of protein; primarily via the hydrolysis of peptide bonds, both enzymatically and nonenzymatically. [proteo + G. lysis, dissolution] * * * pro·te·ol·y·sis .prōt ē äl ə səs n, pl y·ses .sēz the hydrolysis of proteins or peptides… …   Medical dictionary

  • proteolysis — prəʊtɪ É‘lÉ™sɪs / É’l n. dissolution of proteins, breaking down of proteins …   English contemporary dictionary

  • proteolysis — [ˌprəʊtɪ ɒlɪsɪs] noun Biochemistry the breakdown of proteins or peptides into amino acids by the action of enzymes. Derivatives proteolytic adjective proteolytically adverb …   English new terms dictionary

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