proof

/proohf/, n.1. evidence sufficient to establish a thing as true, or to produce belief in its truth.2. anything serving as such evidence: What proof do you have?3. the act of testing or making trial of anything; test; trial: to put a thing to the proof.4. the establishment of the truth of anything; demonstration.5. Law. (in judicial proceedings) evidence having probative weight.6. the effect of evidence in convincing the mind.7. an arithmetical operation serving to check the correctness of a calculation.8. Math., Logic. a sequence of steps, statements, or demonstrations that leads to a valid conclusion.9. a test to determine the quality, durability, etc., of materials used in manufacture.10. Distilling.a. the arbitrary standard strength, as of an alcoholic liquor.b. strength with reference to this standard: "100 proof" signifies a proof spirit, usually 50% alcohol.11. Photog. a trial print from a negative.12. Print.a. a trial impression, as of composed type, taken to correct errors and make alterations.b. one of a number of early and superior impressions taken before the printing of the ordinary issue: to pull a proof.13. (in printmaking) an impression taken from a plate or the like to show the quality or condition of work during the process of execution; a print pulled for examination while working on a plate, block, stone, etc.14. Numis. one of a limited number of coins of a new issue struck from polished dies on a blank having a polished or matte surface.15. the state of having been tested and approved.16. proved strength, as of armor.17. Scot. Law. the trial of a case by a judge alone, without a jury.adj.18. able to withstand; successful in not being overcome: proof against temptation.19. impenetrable, impervious, or invulnerable: proof against outside temperature changes.20. used for testing or proving; serving as proof.21. of standard strength, as an alcoholic liquor.22. of tested or proven strength or quality: proof armor.23. noting pieces of pure gold and silver that the U.S. assay and mint offices use as standards.v.t.24. to test; examine for flaws, errors, etc.; check against a standard or standards.25. Print. prove (def. 7).26. to proofread.27. to treat or coat for the purpose of rendering resistant to deterioration, damage, etc. (often used in combination): to proof a house against termites; to shrinkproof a shirt.28. Cookery.a. to test the effectiveness of (yeast), as by combining with warm water so that a bubbling action occurs.b. to cause (esp. bread dough) to rise due to the addition of baker's yeast or other leavening.[11751225; ME prove, prooff, prof, proufe, alter. (by assoc. with the vowel of PROVE) of preove, proeve, prieve, pref < MF preve, proeve, prueve < LL proba a test, akin to L probare to test and find good; cf. PREE]Syn. 1. confirmation, demonstration, corroboration, support. See evidence. 3. examination, assay. 18. firm, steadfast.
* * *
In logic and mathematics, an argument that establishes a proposition's validity.Formally, it is a finite sequence of formulas generated according to accepted rules. Each formula either is an axiom or is derived from a previously established theorem, and the last formula is the statement that is to be proven. The essence of deductive reasoning (see deduction), this is the basis of Euclidean geometry and all scientific methods inspired by it. An alternative form of proof, called mathematical induction, applies to propositions defined through processes based on the counting numbers. If the proposition holds for n = 1 and can be shown to hold for n = k + 1 whenever n = k (a constant) is also true, then it holds for all values of n. An example is the assertion that the sum of the first n counting numbers is n(n + 1)/2.* * *
▪ liquorin liquor distilling, a measure of the absolute alcohol content of a distilled liquor, which is a mixture of alcohol and water. The measurement is made by determining the specific gravity of the liquor; that is, the weight per unit volume of the liquid compared to that of water. The measurement of the alcohol content is expressed in terms that vary from country to country: specific gravity, percentage by volume of alcohol, percentage by weight of alcohol, percentage by volume of proof spirit, or by gradations on an arbitrary scale. The measurement is done at an index temperature, as specific gravity varies with temperature.In Great Britain, the Customs and Excise Act of 1952, declared proof spirits (100 proof ) to be those in which the weight of the spirits is ^{12}/_{13} the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at 51° F (11° C). Thus, proof spirits are 48.24 percent alcohol by weight or 57.06 percent by volume. Other spirits are designated over or under proof, with the percentage of variance noted. In the United States, a proof spirit (100 proof) is one containing 50 percent alcohol by volume.▪ logicin logic, an argument that establishes the validity of a proposition. Although proofs may be based on inductive logic, in general the term proof connotes a rigorous deduction. In formal axiomatic systems of logic and mathematics, a proof is a finite sequence of wellformed formulas (generated in accordance with accepted formation rules) in which: (1) each formula is either an axiom or is derived from some previous formula or formulas by a valid inference; and (2) the last formula is that which is to be proved. For proof by cases, see dilemma.* * *
Universalium. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
proof — n [alteration of Middle English preove, from Old French preuve, from Late Latin proba, from Latin probare to prove] 1: the effect of evidence sufficient to persuade a reasonable person that a particular fact exists see also evidence 2: the… … Law dictionary
Proof — • The establishment of a disputed or controverted matter by lawful means or arguments. Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Proof Proof … Catholic encyclopedia
Proof — Proof, a. [1913 Webster] 1. Used in proving or testing; as, a proof load, or proof charge. [1913 Webster] 2. Firm or successful in resisting; as, proof against harm; waterproof; bombproof. [1913 Webster] I . . . have found thee Proof against all… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Proof — may refer to: * A rigorous, compelling argument ** Formal proof ** Mathematical proof ** Proof theory, a branch of mathematical logic that represents proofs as formal mathematical objects ** Logical argument ** Evidence (law), tested evidence or… … Wikipedia
proof´er — proof «proof», noun, adjective, verb. –n. 1. a way or means of showing beyond doubt the truth of something: »Is what you say a guess, or have you proof? SYNONYM(S): See syn. under evidence. (Cf. ↑evidence) 2. the establishment of the truth of… … Useful english dictionary
Proof — Proof, n. [OF. prove, proeve, F. preuve, fr. L. proba, fr. probare to prove. See {Prove}.] [1913 Webster] 1. Any effort, process, or operation designed to establish or discover a fact or truth; an act of testing; a test; a trial. [1913 Webster]… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Proof — в 2005 году Основная информация … Википедия
proof — [pro͞of] n. [ME profe < OFr prueve < LL proba < L probare: see PROBE] 1. the act or process of proving; a testing or trying of something 2. anything serving or tending to establish the truth of something, or to convince one of its truth; … English World dictionary
proof — ► NOUN 1) evidence establishing a fact or the truth of a statement. 2) the proving of the truth of a statement. 3) a series of stages in the resolution of a mathematical or philosophical problem. 3) archaic a test or trial. 4) Printing a trial… … English terms dictionary
Proof — ist ein US amerikanischer Rapper (1973 2006), siehe Proof (Rapper) in der Drucktechnik die Bezeichnung für eine Vorschau auf das spätere Druckergebnis, siehe Proof (Druck) der Original Titel eines Films von John Madden aus dem Jahr 2005, siehe… … Deutsch Wikipedia
proof — [n1] evidence, authentication affidavit, argument, attestation, averment, case, certification, chapter and verse*, clincher*, clue, confirmation, corroboration, credentials, criterion, cue*, data, demonstration, deposition, documents,… … New thesaurus