polymyxin

/pol'ee mik"sin/, n. Pharm.
any of various polypeptide antibiotics derived from Bacillus polymyxa.
[1945-50; < NL polymyx(a) specific epithet ( < Gk poly- POLY- + mýxa mucus, slime) + -IN2]

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drug
      any of five polypeptide antibiotics derived from various species of the soil bacterium Bacillus that are active against gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Polymyxins disrupt the cell membranes of bacteria, destroying their ability to function as osmotic barriers.

      Only polymyxins B and E are used clinically; the others damage the kidneys. Polymyxin B can also cause kidney damage and therefore can only be applied topically to treat infections such as those of the eye, ear, skin, and urinary bladder. Polymyxin E, also known as colistin, is used frequently for diarrhea in children. The chief therapeutic use of the polymyxins is treating infections of gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to penicillin and other broad-spectrum antibiotics.

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Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • polymyxin B — n the least toxic of the polymyxins used in the form of its sulfate chiefly in the treatment of some localized, gastrointestinal, or systemic infections * * * an antibiotic used to treat severe infections caused by Gram negative bacteria.… …   Medical dictionary

  • polymyxin E — n COLISTIN …   Medical dictionary

  • polymyxin — [päl΄i mik′sin] n. [< ModL ( Bacillus) polymyx( a) (< poly , POLY + myxa < Gr myxa, MUCUS) + IN1] any of various antibiotics obtained from strains of a soil bacterium (Bacillus polymyxa), esp. effective against Gram negative bacteria …   English World dictionary

  • Polymyxin — Polymyxins are antibiotics,cite journal |author=Dixon RA, Chopra I |title=Polymyxin B and polymyxin B nonapeptide alter cytoplasmic membrane permeability in Escherichia coli |journal=J. Antimicrob. Chemother. |volume=18 |issue=5 |pages=557–63… …   Wikipedia

  • Polymyxin E — Strukturformel Allgemeines Freiname Colistin Summenformel …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Polymyxin B — drugbox IUPAC name = N [4 amino 1 [1 [4 amino 1 oxo 1 [6,9,18 tris(2 aminoethyl) 15 benzyl 3 (1 hydroxyethyl) 12 (2 methylpropyl) 2,5,8,11,14,17,20 heptaoxo 1,4,7,10,13,16,19 heptazacyclotricos 21 yl] amino] butan 2 yl] amino] 3 hydroxy 1… …   Wikipedia

  • polymyxin — polimiksinas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Ciklinis peptidas, antibiotikas. atitikmenys: angl. polymyxin rus. полимиксин …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • polymyxin A — noun see polymyxin …   Useful english dictionary

  • polymyxin B — noun see polymyxin …   Useful english dictionary

  • polymyxin — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary, from New Latin polymyxa, from poly + Greek myxa mucus more at mucus Date: 1947 any of several toxic antibiotics obtained from a soil bacterium (Bacillus polymyxa) and active against gram… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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