- /pol"it byoor'oh, poh"lit-, peuh lit"-/, n.(often l.c.) the executive committee and chief policymaking body of a Communist party.Also, Politbureau.[ < Russ politbyuró, shortening of politícheskoe byuró political bureau]
* * *Supreme policy-making body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the model for the politburos in other countries.The first Politburo, created in 1917 to provide leadership during the Bolshevik uprising, was dissolved when the coup was accomplished. The party congress of 1919 instructed the Central Committee to elect a new Politburo, which soon overshadowed the Central Committee in power. In 1952 it was replaced by a larger Presidium of the Central Committee; after Joseph Stalin's death, stress was placed on "collective leadership" to correct for his abuses. The name Politburo was revived in 1966. Its members included the general secretary of the Communist Party, the minister of defense, the head of the KGB, and the heads of the most important republics or urban party branches. It was dissolved with the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.
* * *▪ political bodyin Russian (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) and Soviet history, the supreme policy-making body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Politburo until July 1990 exercised supreme control over the Soviet government; in 1990 the Politburo was enlarged and was separated to a certain degree from control over the Soviet government. With the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the subsequent banning of the Communist Party in Russia (1991), the Politburo also was effectively dissolved.The first Politburo was created in Russia by the Bolshevik Party Central Committee in late October 1917 to provide continuous and flexible leadership in that year's uprising. The seven Politburo members included Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, and Joseph Stalin. The Bolshevik coup accomplished, the Politburo was dissolved. The 8th Party Congress in March 1919 instructed the Central Committee to elect a new Politburo of five from its ranks; its formal role would be to decide on questions too urgent to await Central Committee deliberation. The Politburo soon assumed a major position in party and state administration, and it eventually came to overshadow the role of the Central Committee. Because the party secretariat planned the agenda, provided all documentation for debate, and transmitted Politburo decisions to the lower echelons, the general secretary of the Communist Party (Stalin) became the Politburo's most influential member. Following the power struggles after Lenin's death in 1924, Stalin achieved a controlling position on the Politburo, exercising complete dominance over it and the party in general.In 1952 the Politburo was abolished and was replaced by a larger Presidium of the Central Committee. More stress was laid on “collective leadership” within this body after the tyrannical excesses of Stalin (d. 1953), and the Presidium was actually strong enough to remove Nikita Khrushchev from the party's leadership in 1964. The old name of Politburo was revived for the body in 1966.The Politburo's membership was nominally elected by the Central Committee of the Communist Party, but in truth the Politburo was a self-perpetuating body that itself decided which new members would be admitted and which members expelled. Until mid-1990 it consisted of about 12–15 members and 5–8 candidate members. With the changes made in 1990, the body grew to include a representative from each of the Soviet republics. Several top government officials were dropped from the Politburo; though they remained party members, they were to concentrate on their responsibilities as members of the presidential council. The chairman of the Politburo was the general secretary of the Communist Party and, traditionally, was in effect the leader of the Soviet Union. (For most of its existence, the Politburo included the minister of defense, the head of the KGB [the Soviet secret police], and the heads of the most important republic or urban party organizations.) The Old Bolshevik ideologues who sat in the early Soviet Politburo by the late 1980s had been replaced by party members with some technical training and records of long and loyal service in the bureaucracy.The politburos of the eastern European communist countries were similar in form and function to the Soviet model. The politburo of China is also similar, but it contains a Standing Committee of about 7 members who exercise great power within the party and the politburo itself.
* * *
Look at other dictionaries:
Politburo — Politburo, short for Political Bureau , Russian Politicheskoye Buro , is the executive organization for a number of political parties, most notably those of communists. Marxist Leninist states In Marxist Leninist states, the party is seen as the… … Wikipedia
Politbüro — oder Politisches Büro des Zentralkomitees ist die Bezeichnung für das höchste politische Führungsgremium der meisten Kommunistischen Parteien. Von 1952 bis 1966 wurde es in der Sowjetunion als Präsidium bezeichnet und vom Juli 1965 bis zum… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Politburó — (de or. ruso) m. Órgano ejecutivo de ciertos partidos comunistas, en particular el soviético. * * * Politburó, abreviatura de Buró Político, se refiere al máximo órgano ejecutivo de distintos partidos políticos, especialmente de Partidos… … Enciclopedia Universal
POLITBURO — POLITBUR Créé à la réunion du comité central du Parti ouvrier social démocrate russe (P.O.S.D.R.) du 10 au 23 octobre 1917 sur la proposition de Dzerjinski, le bureau politique est un organe permanent formé de membres du comité central qui se… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Politburó — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Politburó, abreviatura de Buró Político, se refiere al máximo órgano ejecutivo de distintos partidos políticos, especialmente de partidos comunistas. En los países socialistas, el Politburó era el máximo órgano de… … Wikipedia Español
politburo — POLITBURÓ s.n. 1. (În fosta U.R.S.S.) Organ politic suprem executiv, format din membri aleşi de către Comitetul Central al Partidului Comunist şi însărcinat cu aplicarea hotărârilor politice ale partidului, ratificate de către Comitetul Central.… … Dicționar Român
politburo — / Politburo The chief committee of a Communist Party … Bryson’s dictionary for writers and editors
Politburo — (n.) highest policy making committee of the U.S.S.R., 1927, from Rus. politbyuro, contracted from politicheskoe byuro political bureau … Etymology dictionary
Politburo — s. m. Escritório político do Comitê Central do Partido Comunista da Rússia (criado em 1917), depois da U.R.S.S … Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa
politburo — ► NOUN (pl. politburos) ▪ the principal policy making committee of a communist party, especially that of the former USSR. ORIGIN from Russian politicheskoe byuro political bureau … English terms dictionary
Politburo — [pä′lit byoor΄ō, pō′litbyoor΄ō; pō lit′byoor΄ō] n. [< Russ Politbyuro, after Polit(icheskoe) Byuro, political bureau] the executive committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and of certain other nations … English World dictionary